Volume 5

July-September 2013

Review Articles

Ganesh Kumar, Archana Dhyani, Preeti Kothiyal

In the recent years, the potential use of polymeric nanoparticles as carriers for a wide range of drugs for therapeutic applications has been increased due to their versatility and wide range of properties. Due to limitations in the conventional drug therapy the increased risk of adverse reactions will occur. Nanoparticles provide the action at the desired sites and thus gaining importance now days. With these nanoparticles the specific targeting to various cells or receptors can be achieved. There are various mechanisms exists which are responsible for cellular internalization and cellular uptake.

Keywords: Ligands, Asialoglycoprotein, Phagocytosis, Galactose/Mannose, Biodegradable Polymers.

Research Articles

Kotta Kranthi Kumar, B Suma Padmaja, T Srikrishna

Immediate release tablets are also tool for expanding markets, extending product life cycles and generating opportunities. The main aim of present research work was formulation development, optimization and in vitro evaluation of Atorvastatin calcium immediate release tablets. Preformulation studies and drug excipients compatibility studies were done initially and the results obtained direct the way and method of formulation. All the mentioned batches were done by wet granulation method. Tablets were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, disintegration and dissolution. In vitro dissolutions were performed in dissolution media and the drug release in 0.05M phosphate buffer of pH 6.8 as medium revealed that the most successful formulation of the study and F9 exhibited satisfactory in-vitro drug release and (F1) and (F2) values were calculated. Dissolution profile of F9 was matched perfectly with marketed (innovator) formulation and F2 value was found to be excellent. Scale up of optimized formulation was done. The kinetic treatment showed that the optimized formulation follow first order kinetics and have good stability as per ICH guidelines.

Keywords: Atorvastatin, Lactose, Croscarmellose Sodium.

Lincy John, Arun Kumar, Sandra Samuel

The aim of our study was to design and evaluate Amlodipine transdermal patches using polymers such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. Matrix type transdermal patches containing Amlodipine were prepared by solvent casting method by using polymer like hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (1%, 1.5%, 2% and 2.5%) and a total of eight formulations were prepared. Plasticizers used were propylene glycol and dibutylpthalate. The transdermal patches were evaluated for their physicochemical properties like folding endurance, thickness, percentage moisture loss, percentage moisture absorption, drug content and water vapour transmission rate. The diffusion studies were performed by using franz diffusion cell. Formulation H7 (2% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose with Dibutylphthlate) as plasticizers showed a maximum release of  99% in 24 hours. Out of these eight formulation of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, 2% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (H7) was optimized since they produced a sustained and a complete release over a period of 24 hours. Thus the knowledge on the use of chitosan to control drug release in transdermal delivery systems might be applicable to other transdermal drug delivery system as well.

Keywords: Transdermal, Hydroxylpropyl Methylcellulose, Amlodipine.

Kumar Ganesh, Dhyani Archana, Kothiyal Preeti

In the present study, an attempt was made to develop galactosylated albumin nanoparticles of Simvastatin for treatment of hypercholesterolemia. By developing the galactosylated nanoparticulated delivery the reqiured action of drug at the target site i.e at liver can be provided. The advantage of targeting helps to reduce the systemic side effects which may be occur due to the distribution of the drug to the other organs and thus helps in maintaing the required concentration of drug at the desired site. The galacotsylated albumin nanoparticles were prepared for the selective delivery of an, Simvastatin to the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) the rate limiting enzyme in the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis which is particularly presents on liver. The albumin nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by using desolvation method and efficiently conjugated with galactose. Various parameters such as particle size, % entrapment efficiency and drug loading efficiency, percentage yield, in vitro drug release, were determined. The size of nanoparticles (both plain and coated NPs) was found to be 200 and 250 nm.The maximum drug content was found to be 79.98 and 79.8 % respectively in plain and galactose coated nanoparticles while the maximum entrapment efficiency was found to be 70.10% and 71.03% in plain and coated nanoparticles. It was also found that coating of nanoparticles increases the size of nanoparticles.

Keywords: Hepatotoxicity, Galactose, Targeting, Asialoglycoprotein Receptor.


Vilegave Kailash, Gali Vidyasagar, Chandankar Pratibha, Patil Ashwini, Kharjul Mangesh, Virendra Jagtap

Niosomes (non-ionic surfactant vesicles) were biodegradable, biocompatible, and non- immunogenic in nature and having flexibility in structure & storage. These are chemically stable, recently many researchers work on niosomes by oral drug delivery to provide better bioavailability to drug. Niosomes provides better encapsulation in biological membrane and maintain stability. Submicron sized vesicle consisting of single and double chain non-ionic surfactant mixtures which was prepared simply by dispersion of surfactants dissolved in aqueous medium or alternatively dissolved surfactant were injected in organic solvent in to an aqu. phase. Drug entrapped values were measured by using flurocent markers like 5-6- Carboxyfluroscein and drug release rate is evaluated in biological media that is (serum & plasma) as a function of surfactant composition and in the presence or absence of cholesterol. Surfactant charge measurement is done by zeta potential as a function of pH, gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting were used to know the compatibility study between biological fluid component and prepared vesicles. It was found that all the vesicle carries negative charge & rapidly bound to the plasma protein which include albumin & imunoglobulin-G that affects the latency of entrapped marker.

Keywords: Niosomes, Non-ionic Surfactant Vesicles, Zeta Potential, Liposomes, Gel Electrophoresis, Immunoblotting, Carboxyfluroscein.

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