Volume 7

April-June 2015

Review Articles

Vandana Sahani, Ganesh Bhatt, Preeti Kothiyal

The hepatic stellate cell has surprised and engaged physiologists, pathologists, and hepatologists for over 130 years yet clear evidence of its role in hepatic injury and fibrosis only emerged following the refinement of methods for its isolation and characterization. The paradigm in liver injury of activation of quiescent vitamin Arich stellate cells into proliferative, contractile, and fibrogenic myofibroblasts has launched an era of astonishing progress in understanding the mechanistic basis of hepatic fibrosis progression and regression. But this simple paradigm has now yielded to a remarkably broad appreciation of the cell’s functions not only in liver injury, but also in hepatic development, regeneration, xenobiotic responses, intermediary metabolism, and immunoregulation. Among the most exciting prospects is that stellate cells are essential for hepatic progenitor cell amplification and differentiation

Keywords: Hepatic Stellate Cell, Cirrhosis.

Rakhi Negi, Laxmi Goswami, Preeti Kothiyal

Hypertension is emerging as one of the severe epidemic disease. Hypertension occurs when blood pressure in the arteries is elevated which makes the heart to work harder than the normal heart. Blood pressure involves two measurement ssystole and diastole which depend upon whether the heart is contracting (systole) or relaxing (diastole) between the beats. The purpose of this review is to study about various causes, signs and symptoms and treatment approaches of hypertension. This article includes pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical approaches to treat hypertension. Awareness about the disease could be the major approach to the treatment of the disease.

Keywords: Hypertension, Herbs, Blood Pressure, Systolic, Diastolic, Heart Rate.

Research Articles

Faten Z Mohamed, Mohamed A Shemis, Mona N Mohareb, Heba A Hosiny

Polymeric multilayer capsules are now being engineered to encapsulate various classes of drug molecules, by using polymers that are biodegradable or that can respond and release their payload in response to well-defined stimuli and are produced by stepwise adsorption of oppositely charged polymers onto the surface of colloidal particles followed by core dissolution, which is called Layer by Layer technique. The present study focuses on synthesis and characterization of polyelectrolyte multilayer microcapsules which was loaded with Bovine Serum Albumin and the cytotoxic effect of the microcapsules on the living cells were studied. The microcapsules were fabricated by using Poly(allylamine) Hydrochloride (PAH) and Poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) as the counter charge polyelectrolytes and biocompatible calcium carbonate as the template which is highly promising to produce capsules for biological applications and loaded with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model drug, BSA labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (BSA-FITC), Calcium carbonate particles and the microcapsules were characterized by SEM and TEM,The effect of microcapsules on Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell line were studied by using The 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol2-y]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide MTT assay. CaCO3 microparticles are very convenient template for the preparation of polyelectrolyte microcapsules 1–4µm, preloading method is more effective than post-loading method, Our results confirmed that this synthetic CaCO3 microcapsules are cyto compatible. We thus have shown that the very easily prepared, stable, prototypical microcapsules composed of PSS/PAH are useful drug delivery agents for proof-of-principle drug delivery studies.

Keywords: LbL , Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules , MTT , MDBK Cell Line.

N H Aloorkar, M B Shinde, S H Shirke, V U Sable

Egalet technology is one of the oral platform technologies. In the present investigation this approach coupled with floating and chronotherapy was utilized. The entire system was developed for the treatment of early morning massive hypertensive heart attacks. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate floating Egalet drug delivery system. Floating of the dosage form was achieved by incorporating two erodible plugs and drug containing plug in the capsule and keeping the air spaces between each plug. The erodible Plugs were composed of HPMC E5 LV polymer and prepared by using direct compression method. Drug containing plugs were prepared by using wet granulation method. Assembling of the dosage form was done by placing two identical outer section plugs enclosing an internal plug of active drug in middle of the capsule. The whole system except the both ends after filling the tablets in capsule was coated with cellulose acetate phthalate to achieve drug release only from both the ends. Atenolol was chosen as s a candidate drug for this drug delivery system. In vitro dissolution study revealed that the drug release took place only after lag time of 6 h. The drug release was found to be dependent on the binder composition and concentration in the formulation. Thus the developed system offers a novel technique for chronotherapeutic release of atenolol in upper part of GIT to treat hypertension in a very effective way i.e. making drug availability at required time.

Keywords: Floating Eaglet, Chronotherapy, Atenolol, In Vitro Drug Release.

Sruti Ranjan Mishra, Bhabani Shankar Nayak, Suprava Sethy, P Ellaiah, Gitanjali Mishra

The primary objective of the study is to enhance the bioavailability of pioglitazone HCl by kneading technique using pioglitazone HCl as drug and β-cyclodextrine as carrier in the ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:5 respectively. The prepared kneaded complexes were characterized for flow properties, drug content and in vitro drug release studies. The kneaded complex of pioglitazone is releasing 100 % drug within 45 min where as pure drug is releasing drug within 150 min. The kneaded complex formulation F1 of drug carrier ratio 1:1 was found to be best for excellent flow property, maximum drug content (88.76±0.23 %) and releasing maximum drug with least time. The drug excipient interaction study was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning colorimetric study. The solid dispersion formulation (F1) was used in preparation of control release tablet by direct compression method using hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K4M) and ethyl cellulose as rate controlling polymers. The tablets were evaluated for thickness, diameter, weight variation, hardness, friability, in vitro drug dissolution and drug release kinetic studies. In vitro experiments indicated a sustained release over 11 h and acceptable tablet parameters as per USP-NF for formulation T9. Hence, it can be concluded that the formulation T9 containing HPMCK4M and ethyl cellulose (80 & 70 mg) has potential to deliver pioglitazone in a controlled and constant manner for prolong period over other formulations and can be adopted for a successful delivery of pioglitazone for oral use.

Keywords: Pioglitazone HCl, β-cyclodextrin, Kneading, Antidiabetic, Bioavailability, Control Release, Tablet.

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