Volume 15

October-December 2023

Review Articles

Mukesh Vinod Kapse, Jameel Ahmed S Mulla

Due to the scarcity of tissue donors, scaffold construction and biomaterial selection are critical components of artificial tissue and bone tissue engineering. This study examines the characterisation, applications, manufacturing processes, biomaterials, and scaffold design issues. Scaffolds must include non-hazardous qualities including biocompatibility and biodegradability for human body as well as the mechanical capabilities needed to support body weight and, depending on the kind of tissue, carry out additional functions. To ensure cell viability and proliferation, scaffold structures like porosity, pore size, and pore shape should be tuned. Natural polymers, synthetic polymers, ceramics, and composites are the different categories of biomaterials. This article has covered various modern and traditional fabrication techniques. In order to match the qualities of the scaffold with the target tissue, the field of bone tissue engineering will need to strike a balance between the method of manufacturing and the choice of biomaterial

Keywords: Scaffold, Biomaterials, Fabrication, Applications, Bone Tissue Engineering.

Kartiki I Dhere, Omkar B Tipugade, Gauri B Sutar, Sipora S Gaikwad, Shobhraj B Malavi

Due to their versatility and distinctive qualities, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have a variety of biomedical uses in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, including targeted chemotherapy and pharmaceutical drug delivery. Due to their simplicity in synthesis, stability, and functionalization, low toxicity, and simplicity in detection, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a natural choice for biomedical applications. The synthesis of AuNPs has been carried out using a variety of chemical techniques over the past few decades, but more recently, emphasis has been drawn to more contemporary environmentally friendly green technologies. GNPs have drawn interest for a variety of uses, mostly in therapy and diagnosis. They are effective and a reliable biological platform due to their simplicity in synthesis and compatibility with different functionalizing ligands. GNPs have been widely employed as antiviral, antibacterial, and anticancer medicines because of their versatility in synthesis and functionalization. We present the advancing trends in the use of monodisperse AuNPs for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in this review, with an emphasis on the research successes and future potential in this area. All of the physiological processes in the human body can be conjugated using AuNPs. Given the complexity of cancer cells and the lack of proper dispersion of chemotherapeutics in the usual drug administration method, many nanomaterials tactics have been employed to boost tumour selectivity, therapeutic index, and anticancer activity. Recent research has shown that AuNPs are easily changed to enable direct drug delivery to the target region.

Keywords: Gold Nanoparticles, Nanomaterials, Chemotherapeutics, Tumor.

Kamlesh Patkari, Jayesh Dwivedi, Hitendra Mahajan

Medicinal plants have been used in many parts of the world for thousands of years as a common remedy for many human diseases. Herbal material continues to be used as a primary medicinal source in rural areas of developing countries. The eye is one of the most delicate organs of the body. Conjunctivitis, cataracts, glaucoma, ocular allergies, ocular inflammation, uveitis, etc. are the most common diseases of the eye. Because of the availability of novel formulation approaches a huge number of herbal drugs are used for the treatment of ocular diseases. Due to safety, efficacy, and lesser side effects herbal medicines gaining popularity and it is growing day by day. This review article discusses the barriers to ocular drug delivery and the challenges experienced in producing herbal medicines.

Keywords: Herbal, Ocular, Barriers, Ophthalmic.

Research Articles

Gangotri Yadav, Omkar Tambvekar, Pallavi Ware, Ashish Jain

The microemulsion is one of the most promising sub-micron carriers for topical drug administration because it has benefits including high drug-loading capacity and good skin penetration. Topical fungal infections may be effectively treated with Itraconazole (a broad- spectrum antifungal drug) gel produced from microemulsions. The objective of the research is to formulate and evaluate a Microemulgel system loaded with the drug Itraconazole microemulsion for effective treatment of skin infections. Optimized microemulsion batches were selected through a pseudo-ternary phase diagram (using IPM, tween 80, and PEG 400 as oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant, respectively), followed by stability studies and characterization. As a gelling agent, xanthan gum is used. The characteristics and stability of an itraconazole microemulsion-based gel were studied, and in vitro drug diffusion of the optimized MEG was conducted. Isopropyl myristate was used as the oil, tween 80 as the surfactant, and PEG 400 as the co- surfactant to produce the microemulsion. With a Smix ratio of 3:1, the largest clear microemulsion zone was identified. The drug content, Viscosity, and zone of inhibition were found to be in the desired range. It was found that the droplet size of optimized formulations was within the desired range (<200nm). The prepared microemulgel was discovered to have good spreadability and texture (from selected microemulsion batches). And it was found that the optimized MEG 3 had a 94.12% in vitro drug diffusion rate. When compared to the microemulsion (ME2) and the conventional gel, the drug from MEG3 Gel showed far better in vitro antifungal studies. Similar to this, it was discovered that MEG 3 Gel’s zone of inhibition (against Candida albicans) had a larger diameter than the microemulsion batch (ME 2). Moreover. Furthermore, according to the stability investigations, the formulation was stable across a range of temperatures. Itraconazole-loaded microemulsion-based gel could be used effectively for the treatment of topical fungal infections.

Keywords: Microemulsion, Pseudo Ternary Phase Diagram, Candida Albicans, Cosurfactant, Microemulgel, Smix.

Jameel Ahmed S Mulla, Pratikshamahendra Chalke, Shreya Pravin Londhe, Monika Arjun Patil, Sonali Narayan Nalawade, Rutuja Rajaram Sawant

Voriconazole loaded nanosponges were prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method using ethyl cellulose (EC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a stabilizer. A 3 level design was employed in this study, requiring 9 experiments. The composition and development process of Nanosponges are heavily influenced by formulation optimization. The 32 design for optimization of effect of independent variables was investigated. Selected as a drug: ethyl cellulose ratio (X1) and stirring rate (rpm) (X2) on dependent variables i.e. particle size (nm), entrapment efficiency (%) respectively. The prepared nanosponges were characterized for particle size, entrapment efficiency, zeta potential, FTIR and SEM. The optimized nanosponges batch was incorporated into gel using carbopol 934. The particle size of formulated voriconazole Nanosponges ranges from 267.1 nm to 537.5 nm. Zeta potential of optimized formulation was found to be -26.7 mV. The EE (%) ranged from 62.21% to 82.11%. The formulation F6 has shown the maximum cumulative % of drug release, 85.57% for 8 hours.

Keywords: Nanosponges, Fungal Infections, Voriconazole, Central Composite Design.

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