Volume 8

July-September 2016

Review Articles

Hitendra S Mahajan, Sagar K Savale

A versatile mode of drug delivery system has been developed to overcome the drawbacks associated in conventional drug delivery system. This review was giving detailed idea about Nanoemulsion system. Nanoemulsion is promising delivery of various drugs. It is nanosized submicron sized emulsions, which are manufactured for improving the delivery of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Nanoemulsion was thermodynamically as well as kinetically stable isotropic system in which two immiscible liquids are mixed to form a single phase by means of an emulsifying agent (Smix). The droplet size was falls typically in the range of 50-200 nm. The main difference between emulsion, microemulsion and nanoemulsion lies in the size and shape of particles dispersed in the continuous Phase. Nanoemulsion offers a promising vehicle for increasing the aqueous solubility of poorly water soluble drugs and enhances the Pharmacological as well as Therapeutic action of drugs. The design and development of nanoemulsions aimed at controlling or improving required bioavailability levels of Pharmaceutical agents. In this review, the attention is focused to give a basic idea about its Introduction, advantages, disadvantages, components, factors, mechanism, formulation method, evaluation and applications of Nanoemulsion system. It also focused in Nanoemulsion system Comparision between emulsion and microemulsion system.

Keywords: Nanoemulsion, Microemulsion, Submicron Sized Emulsions, Drug Delivery, Emulgents, Novel Drug Delivery, Versatile Drug Delivery.

Vivek P Chavda

An appropriate drug concentration at the site of action for sufficient period of time is desired for cogent pharmacotherapeutics. Vesicular drug delivery system is a mean to achieve this goal with enhanced bioavailability. Niosome is such vesicular mean containing nonionic surfactants and cholesterol. Longer shelf life, stability and ability to deliver drug at target site in a controlled or sustained manner are some of its unique credentials. The present review has been grafted to highlight some of the fascinating features of niosome as drug delivery vehicle. It includes formulation aspect of niosome, its types, preparation methods, stability, toxicity, its characterization and lastly glimpses of its pharmaceutical utilities are being enumerated.

Keywords: Niosome, Nonionic Surfactant, Cholesterol, Aspasomes, Stability.

Research Articles

N G Raghavendra Rao, T Sunitha, G Vijay Kumar

Sustained release dosage forms are designed to release a drug at a predetermined rate by maintaining a constant drug level for a specific period of time with minimum side effects. The main objective of this research work was to develop and evaluate the sustained release (SR) tablets of Carvedilol. Carvedilol is an antihypertensive agent. It is most effective in management of hypertension and to relive symptoms of angina pectoris. The tablets were prepared relatively small dose of 20 mg by direct compression method using different polymers. The results of both pre and post-compressional parameters were within I.P prescribed limits. The in-vitro drug release were performed in the USP Apparatus-II (Paddle) using 0.5% SLS as a dissolution media at 50 rpm speed and temperature of 37°C±0.5°C upto 12 hrs. Majority of designed sustained-release tablets containing carvedilol with all the other polymers displayed drug release 61.15 to 99.43% drug in 12hrs. This F7 and F9 formulations containing HPMCK15M, MCC, β-Cyclodextrins and xanthan gum. So the HPMCK15M decreasing the solubility of Carvedilol and drug release is 99.80 at 13hrs. FTIR spectral analysis showed that characteristic peak of Carvedilol pure drug were retained in the spectra of all the formulations within the same range indicating the there was no interaction between drug and excipients used. Kinetic study reveals that all formulations follow first order kinetics. The stability studies of the optimized tablet F7 and F9 were carried out according to ICH guidelines. The stability study shows no significant changes in hardness, friability and drug content. Finally concluded that the formulations F7 and F9 showed best release of 99.81% at 13 hrs. Among all the formulations the F7 and F9 formulations is best formulation because it may be presence of both synthetic and natural polymers.

Keywords: Carvedilol, HPMC, Zero Order Release, First Order Release, Xanthan Gum.

Pankaj Nerkar, Hitendra Mahajan, Pradum Ige, Pranilsing Rajput

The objective of present research work was to formulate nanoparticles of lansoprazole using Eudragit RLPO® (ERLPO) as carrier to protect it from acidic pH and to improve its solubility. The nanoparticles were prepared by the solvent displacement method (nanoprecipitation). Lansoprazole is a benzimidazole derivative, which is used as a representative proton pump inhibitor. The compatibility of lansoprazole and Eudragit RLPO was evaluated by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The formulated nanoparticles were evaluated by Powder X Ray Diffractometry (PXRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). DSC results showed that there is not any drug- excipient interaction. Saturation solubility and dissolution studies indicated that dissolution rate was remarkably increased in lyophilized Formulation as compared to drug alone. The in vitro drug release study showed that very less drug was released in the pH 1.2 dissolution medium within 2h whereas 90 % of the drug was released in the pH 6.8. In conclusion Eudragit RLPO can be suitably utilized to increase the solubility and acid resistance of lansoprazole.

Keywords: Lansoprazole, Nanoparticles, Eudragit RLPO, Solvent Displacement, Saturation Solubility.

Mohd Nazish, K Mahalingan

The present study was planned to formulate fast dissolving sublingual film of Aminophylline by solvent casting method using a polymer HPMC E50 as film forming agent. The FT-IR study revealed no interaction between the drug and excipients. Sucrose was added to mask the bitter taste of the drug. FDS Films were prepared by using the drug polymer ratio 1:1 to 1:9. The prepared films were evaluated for physicochemical parameters such as weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, drug content, tensile strength, % elongation, % moisture absorption and in vitro dissolution test. Formulations (F2 & F3) showed better drug release (99.05% and 99.43%) within 210 sec. and also showed less disintegration time (33.33±0.57 and 37±0.57sec.). The appearance and surface smoothness of formulation (F2) was not good. Therefore, Formulation F3 was selected as the best formulation based on the physicochemical parameter and in vitro dissolution studies. Stability study was conducted for the best formulation (F3) as per ICH guidelines and showed no significant changes in physical appearance, weight uniformity, folding endurance, % drug content, % moisture absorption and in vitro drug release during study period. Therefore, it can be concluded that the prepared fast dissolving Aminophylline sublingual films might be a potential formulation for the treatment of patient having asthma.

Keywords: Aminophylline, Fast dissolving Sublingual Films, Solvent Casting Method, Film Forming Polymer HPMC E50, In Vitro Drug Release.

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