Volume 10

October-Decmber 2018

Review Articles

Rishita Tyagi, Bharat Kumar Reddy Sanapalli, Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases identified by hyperglycemia that results from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. It can also be directed as metabolism disorder. It is a disorder which affects the body’s capability to generate or utilize insulin and is identified by irregular high levels of glucose in the blood.DM can lead to a number of complications such as skin, eye and foot complications, neuropathy, kidney disease, stroke, heart disease etc. Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is the common problem associated with those who have developed diabetes mellitus. It is one of the common and disabling and normally leads to amputation of the leg. Despite of giving treatment, ulcers tends to become chronic wounds. Although the pathophysiology of diabetic wound is multifactorial, chronic inflammation and lack of tissue regeneration leads to impair wound healing in diabetes. Scaffolds have received greater attention as they promote cell-biomaterial interactions, cell adhesion and extracellular matrix deposition and has potent advantages in treating diabetic foot ulcers. In this review, we have discussed DFU, a cellular scaffold that has been studied for DFU.

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Foot Ulcer, Scaffold, Acellular Scaffolds. 

Yewale Satish T, Mahajan Hitendra S

In last few years Raman spectroscopy becomes essential analytical technique in various department of science. Because of technological advancement in instrumentation of Raman spectroscopy they became alternative technique for other invasive techniques for analysis. Raman spectroscopy is non-invasive, minimal sensitive to water, based on inelastic scattering of monochromatic light. Raman spectra is obtained by sample is subjecting to the laser source radiation, electron within the sample interact with radiation leads to light scattering. This review describes principle and instrumentation of Raman spectroscopy along with its pharmaceutical application. Raman spectroscopy has different applications including chemical imaging, identification and quantification of drugs, polymorphs, inorganics and minerals, In-process monitoring, medical diagnostic, analysis of drug abuse, analysis of turbid sample and also in novel drug delivery system. Advantages like minimal training to operate, simple in operating, accurate and no or minimal sample is required to analyse have made Raman spectroscopy is an charming analytical tool.

Keywords: Raman Spectroscopy, Surface Enhanced Raman, Spectroscopy, Pharmaceutical Application. 

Mini Reviews

Izharul Hasan

Cupping therapy pulls toxins, pathogenic elements, blood poison, dead lymph and cell flotsam and jetsam from profound inside the tissues to the surface. These crippling operators are then more effortlessly removed from the body. The stores disseminate from a couple of hours up to a little while, contingent upon the measure of stagnation and the patients post treatment exercises. The nature of the pathogenic components changes as indicated by the seriousness of the patient’s blood stasis; which associates with the nature, seriousness and sort of condition they have. It can show up from a light pink to a dim purple, yet is normally a shade of red. Regularly modest raised knocks will show up. In some cases a reasonable liquid will be attracted to the surface. These are largely consequences of sickness and toxins being expelled from profound inside the tissues. For the most part, the expert will see the best measure of stores being attracted to the surface in the initial couple of medicines. The stores will decrease in force as the more profound issues are settled and the stagnations and toxins have been dug up and flushed out by means of the bodys’ own circulatory frameworks, removal from the pores and sweat. Although the marks look painful, they are not. Patients usually feel an immediate sense of relief.

Keywords: Cupping Therapy, Toxins. 

Research Articles

Moreshwar P Patil, Priyanka T Jaybhave, Smita D Kothmire, Monali K More, Sanjay J Kshirsagar

Glibenclamide is BCS class II drug used in the treatment of NIDDM. It has low aqueous solubility and poor bioavailability. Hence, the aim of this study was to increase the solubility of glibenclamide by developing as solid self-emulsifying delivery system. Self-emulsifying region was determined by ternary phase diagram. The optimized formulation contained glibenclamide (5mg), linseed oil (28.80%), Tween 80: PEG 200 (43.19%), and further solidified by adsorbing it on Aerosil 200 using spray dryer. The formulations were evaluated for percent transmittance, emulsification time, percent drug content, in-vitro dissolution study, globule size and zeta potential. The optimized solid formulations showed 96.02% drug release with droplet size 178 nm and emulsification time of 39.27 sec. Optimized formulations showed more release than pure drug. Characterization of the solid SEDDS revealed no interaction among the drug and excipient. DSC study revealed presence of drug in dissolved state while XRD indicated that the drug was in amorphous state. The solid SEDDS which emulsifies rapidly and had very small droplet size can be a promising approach for delivery of poorly water- soluble drugs having low bioavailability.

Keywords: Glibenclamide, Dissolution Improvement, Solid Self Emulsifying System, Spray Drying.

Anurughma S, Neema George

The aim of the present study was to increase the solubility and thereby improve the oral bioavailability of Furosemide by incorporating the drug in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). The Furosemide loaded NLC was prepared by solvent diffusion method using labrafil m 2130 as solid lipid, capryol pgmc as liquid lipid and tween 80 as surfactant. The prepared formulations were optimized by 23 full factorial design using total lipid: drug ratio, solid lipid: liquid lipid ratio and surfactant concentration (%) as independent variables and %entrapment efficiency and %invitro drug release as dependent variables. The optimized Furosemide loaded NLC formulation was evaluated for drug content, entrapment efficiency, drug loading capacity, particle size, PDI , zeta potential, morphology, storage stability, in vitro drug release and mechanism of drug release. Drug content, entrapment efficiency, drug loading capacity, average particle size, PDI and zeta potential of Furosemide NLC were found to be 83.56%, 75.50%, 25.63%, 99.24nm, 0.302 and -31.2mV respectively. Morphology study by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed spherical particles with smooth surfaces. As compared to in-vitro drug release of Furosemide pure drug, optimized NLC formulation showed a fast initial release followed by a sustained release, best fitted to Higuchi equation. Pure drug followed Zero order release kinetics. The results obtained showed potential of NLCs for significant improvement in oral bioavailability of poorly soluble Furosemide.

Keywords: Furosemide, Solvent Diffusion Method, Nanostructured Lipid Carrier, Labrafil M 2130, Capryol PGMC, 23 Full Factorial Design, Entrapment Efficiency, In Vitro Drug Release.

Thriveni M, Viresh K Chandur, Mohammed Gulzar Ahmed

The aim of the present research is to formulate the emulgel of Oxiconazole Nitrate, an antifungal drug for the topical delivery. The formulation was prepared by using carbopol 934, HPMC K4M and xantham gum at different concentration. The formulations were evaluated for compatibility studies, physical appearance, pH, viscosity, spreadability, photomicrography, in-vitro studies, antifungal activity, extrudability and stability studies. The prepared formulations were found to be homogeneous. pH and spreadability was found to in the range of 5.6-6.1 and 19.01- 26.30 respectively. Among all the formulations (F1-F6), formulation F2 containing carbopol 934 and F5 containing Xanthan gum shown highest drug release (88.18 and 92.51%) after 24 hrs. Antifungal activity of the formulations was assessed by comparing with the marketed ZODERMTME cream. The release studies follow the zero order kinetics. The short term stability studies were conducted for the optimized formulation and it was found to be stable. Hence the oxiconazole emulgel is the promising implement for the antifungal activity.

Keywords: Hydrophobic Drug, Emulgel, Oxiconazole Nitrate, Topical Drug Delivery.

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