Volume 11

January-March 2019

Review Articles

Vishal Yadav, S ‎Satheshkumar

Pharmaceutical research is achieving and focusing new goals within the field of delivery systems, that square measure helpful to aggravate therapeutic objectives while alleviating side effects. Multiparticulates are discrete particles that make a multiple unit system. Pelletization is the technique to convert drugs or excipients into small free flowing, spherical or semi spherical units, which are produced by agglomerating fine powdered drug or excipients with a binder solution. Pellets range in a size, typically between 0.5-2.0mm. Multiple Unit Particulate System (MUPS) are multi-particulate in nature and are administered as tablets. These tablets gets disperse in the stomach and intestine, allowing constant drug release in systemic circulation. In comparison with single traditional dosage form, in the Micro particulate system dosage form of the drug has been divided among various discrete delivery entities. This article reviews the classification, advantages, disadvantages, common industrial technique for preparation of pellets.

Keywords: Micro Particulates, MUPS, Pelletization, Spheronization.

Research Articles

Rahmi Annisa, Arief ‎Suryadinata, ‎Achmad ‎Nashichuddin, ‎Begum Fauziyah, ‎Roihatul Mutiah, ‎Nandea Zulfana ‎Hendrawan

Nanosilver is an antibacterial agent that can inhibit the growth of gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. The small size makes nanosilver enhance its antibacterial properties. Nanosilver can be used as an active ingredient in topical preparations such as gels. In this study, the aim was to formulate and determine the antibacterial activity of gel nanosilver against Staphylococcus aureus. Synthesis nanosilver uses a reduction method with reducing sodium citrate and gelatin stabilizer. The Nanosilver synthesized was then characterized by UV-Vis and spectrophotometers Particle Size Analyzer (PSA). Gel preparations were nanosilver made from carbopol 940 with various concentrations of nanosilver which were 1.5%, 2%, and 2.5% which were physicochemically evaluated including organoleptic, pH, homogeneity, dispersion, viscosity, centrifugation, and cycling test at 4oC and 40oC. The antibacterial activity test was carried out by the excellent diffusion method using Nutrient Agar (NA) solid media with an incubation time of 1×24 hours at 37oC. The test bacteria used was Staphylococcus aureus. Based on the data obtained showed that the gel preparation nanosilver had physicochemical characteristics which were both organoleptically clear transparent, odorless, semisolid form, had a pH range of 5.63-5.76, homogeneous, spread power 3.3-3.83 cm, viscosity 2017-2500 cP and stocks remain stable during the period of storage and cycling test. Variations in the concentration of nanosilver in gel preparations can have an effect on inhibiting the growth of bacteria Staphylococcus aureus with inhibition by Formula 1 (1.5%) of 4.467 ± 0.275 mm, Formula 2 (2%) of 5.683 ± 0.475 mm, and Formula 3 (2, 5%) of 6.483 ± 0.425 mm.

Keywords: Nanosilver, Nanoparticle Synthesis, Gel, Formulation, Antibacterial, Formulation. 

Calister E Ugwu, ‎Mumuni A Momoh, ‎Rachael S Ezeugwu

Many herbal extracts have excellent in-vitro activity but less in-vivo activity because of their macromolecular size and poor lipid solubility which resulted in poor absorption and bioavailability problems. Some of these challenges could be overcome through the formulation of novel drug delivery systems such as phytosomes. Phytosomes provide better absorption and bioavailability than the conventional herbal extracts. Musa paradisiaca phytosome complexes were formulated and evaluated with the following parameters: Percentage yield, phytochemical screening, morphology, drug content, FTIR, in vitro release studies and in vivo anti-ulcer activity. Results showed that the % yield was 60 % and contains some phyto constituents. Batch A had a significantly higher EE (p < 0.05) in the range of 77.00 ± 1.30 – 93.00 ± 2.80 than others, while the batch B was in the range of 49.00 ± 1.90 – 72.00 ± 1.60.  In batch A, AK1 had a significant highest drug release (p < 0.05) of 85 %, while AK2 had the lowest drug release of 70 %, while in batch B, BC2 had the highest drug release of 65 %.  Musa Paradisiaca phytosome complex formulated with Kolliphor® HS 15 exhibited more antiulcerogenic activity when compared to the pure extract and standard. Hence, Musa paradisiaca complexes (1:1) formulated with Kolliphor® HS 15 at 200 mg/kg serves as a potential antiulcer agent with an improved bioavailability than conventional formulations.

Keywords: Musa paradisiaca, Phytosomes, Kolliphor® HS 15, Antiulcer. 

Zafar Javed Khan, ‎Naeem Ahmad ‎Khan, Imrana ‎Naseem, Shahab A ‎A Nami

The objective of the present work is to evaluate the in-vivo antioxidant potential of 50% ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera against high fat diet induced rats. Animal were treated with plant extract for 30 days, and high fat diet was given to all groups except plain control through, out the study, and alpha tocopherol acetate (Vit, E) was used as standard. Pre-treatment with 22 mg/100 gm of body weight of 50% ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera improved the Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and lipid peroxidation levels significantly as compared to control group. The present studies revealed that Moringa oleifera has significant in-vivo antioxidant activity and can be use to protect tissue from oxidative stress. The result showed that the activities of SOD, catalase, lipid peroxidase, and glutathione, in groups treated with high fat diet declined significantly than that of normal group. 50% ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera in the dose of 22 mg/100 gm of body weight, has improved the SOD, catalase, glutathione, and lipid peroxidation levels significantly, as compared to the alpha tocopherol (Vit,E). Based on this study we conclude that 50% ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera possesses in vivo antioxidant activity and can be employed in protecting tissue from oxidative stress.

Keywords: Moringa oleifera, Alpha Tocopherol, Superoxide Dismutase, Antioxidant Activity. 

Sharifa sultana, Md ‎Ashraful Islam, ‎Nahid Sharmin, ‎Shimul Halder, Abu ‎Shara Shamsur ‎Rouf

A validated reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method has been developed and validated for the determination of Milnacipran hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations. Shimadzu HPLC containing SPD-20Av uv-visible detector, SIL 20 AC HT manual injector, LC-20 AT binary pump with software LC solution of version 1.2 was employed in the present study. Chromatography was carried out on a reverse phase C-18 column (250 x 4.6 mm x 5 µm length); optimum separation was achieved by using a mobile phase containing phosphate buffer (pH 3.6): acetonitrile at a ratio 70:30 with 1 mL/min flow rate and the detection was done at 220 nm. The retention time for Milnacipran hydrochloride was observed at 4.802 min. The method also produced linear responses in the concentration range from 25-75 μg/mL of Milnacipran hydrochloride with correlation coefficients of 0.999, accuracy of 101.3% and precision of 0.70%. As per ICH guideline, this developed method is fast, accurate, precise and sensitive hence it can be employed for routine analysis of Milnacipran hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations.

Keywords: Milnacipran, RP-HPLC, Validation, Antidepressant, Neurotransmitter. 

Ataa Said, ‎Nabaweya M El-‎Feky, Khaled ‎Rashed, Ahmed ‎Tawila, Gerda ‎Fouche

The present study was carried out to determine the chemical composition and to evaluate anticancer and antimicrobial activities of essential oil extracted from Citrus volkameriana leaves. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil obtained from C. volkameriana leaves revealed that the major compounds were limonene (21.26%), sabinene (14.14%), linalool (9.64%), Citronellal (7.08%) and Terpinene-4-ol (6.23%). The growth inhibitory effect of the essential oil were tested in the 3-cell lines panel consisting of TK10 (renal), UACC62 (melanoma) and MCF7 (breast) cancer cells using Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Antimicrobial activity was tested against four gram positive bacteria, four gram negative bacteria strains, gram stain resistant microbe Mycobacterium tuberculosis and against four fungal yeasts. The oil showed a significant activity on MCF7 Breast cancer cell line and antimicrobial activity especially on Micrococcus luteus B-287 with MIC (31.25 µg/ml).

Keywords: Citrus volkameriana, Leaves Essential Oil, Limonene, Anticancer Activity, Antimicrobial Activity. 

Patil Priya, Talele ‎Swati, Wagh Rahul, ‎Jadhav Anil

Transdermal drug delivery is optimistic, but challenging system available for accessible as well systemic effect of the drug. Drug entry is followed by intercellular, transcellular or appendageal route. The intention of the present examination was to developed a nanogel with diminish particle size in order to ameliorate the bioavailability of the anti-fungal drug, Fluconazole. The present investigation is an endeavor to deliver the transdermal delivery of Fluconazole nanogel. Nanogel has been the frame having size extending from 100-400 nm. Glycerol and water ratio is 20:80 and co-solvent system is selected for performing Fluconazole nanogel using various polymers and has better permeability coefficient than alcohol: water cosolvent. Gels containing Fluconazole with Eudragit polymer appeared better permeability coefficient. Fluconazole nanogel formulated using carbopol with saturation enrich has shown better flux enrichment in comparison with nanogel formulated using Glycerol and Triethanolamine. Fluconazole nanogel with Eudragit and carpool as gelling agent has better flux enhancement with Triethanolamine.

Keywords: Fluconazole, TDDS, Eudragit S-100, Glycerol, Carbopol-940, Cellophane Membrane. 

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