Volume 11

April-June 2019

Review Articles

Srinivas Hebbar, ‎Manasa P, Ravi G S, ‎Akhilesh Dubey

Ayurveda is the ancient valuable medical science in India. It deals with to accomplish physical, mental, social and spiritual well-being by practicing preventive, health promoting approach towards life. Now a day’s use of herbal products has been tremendously increased in developing countries.  Centella asiatica has gained a lot of attention in both business and scientific communities due to increased demand in terms of medicines, food, waste management, and agricultural practices. Commercialization and extensive research that is carried on Centella asiatica have to lead to the urgent need for the conservation of the plant from the perspectives of pharmacology, dietary, ethnobotanical and biotechnology. Some of the marketed products which have used Centella asiatica as the main ingredient which improve mental abilities, vascular support, blood circulation, and psoriasis. The triterpenoid compounds are responsible for the pharmacologically activity of Centella asiatica. This review provides its basic character of the plant and significance as an economic plant with medicinal value.

Keywords: Centella asiatica, Ethnobotanical, Mental Ability Triterpenoid, Pharmacologically Active.

Research Articles

Olusola I Aremu, ‎Johnpaul I Ajuzie, ‎Musiliu O ‎Adedokun, ‎Christiana Y Isimi, ‎Garba A Abuh, ‎Martins O Emeje

Suppository formulation is a solid formulation intended to be inserted into the rectum where they melt or disperse and exhibit local or systemic effect. It is a valuable alternative to other dosage delivery systems as it tends to eliminate the latter’s attendant side effects. A study has been made on the formulation and evaluation of Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) suppositories using Cow fat (GF), its admixtures and Cocoa butter as reference comparatively. Rectal suppositories containing ASA (300 mg) in pre-calibrated mould were prepared by fusion method using CF, Cow fat and Palm Kernel oil (CP) at 3:1, Cow fat and Liquid Paraffin (CL) at 3:1 and Cocoa Butter (CB) as bases. Thereafter the suppositories were characterized using parameters such as appearance, crushing strength, weight variation, melting point, liquefaction time, content uniformity and in-vitro release in accordance with standard procedures. Liquefaction or disintegration time in minutes followed this order: ACB (4.40 ±0.84)<ACL(8.19±1.72) <ACP(11.28±1.84) < ACF(14.17±2.12) while that of cumulative drug release in percentage is ACL> ACP >ACF>ACB (p<0.05).  Results obtained indicated that the bases used generally could be ranked in the order of CL > CP > CF > CB (p<0.05) in terms of favourable physicochemical properties investigated. The foregoing indicates that CL, CP or CF has promising potential and could be a substitute suppository base in the formulation of ASA suppositories.

Keywords: Formulation, Suppositories, Acetylsalicylic Acid, Cow Fat, Palm Kernel Oil, Liquid Paraffin. 

Ravi G S, R ‎Narayana Charyulu, ‎Akhilesh Dubey, ‎Srinivas Hebbar, ‎Sandeep D S

The drug-lipid complex formulation is a potential drug delivery approach for the polyphenolic phytoconstituents which works by improving the drug solubility, absorption and bioavailability. Rutin is a polyphenolic flavonoid known for several biological effects such as anti-oxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective etc. but due to its low solubility, absorption and bioavailability problems the use is limited. We formulated the phytosomal nanocarriers of rutin to overcome these limitations. The rutin phytosomal nanocarriers were prepared by solvent evaporation method using different ratios of rutin and soybean phosphatidylcholine (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3) and characterised for compatibility, particle size, poly dispersity index, zeta potential, surface morphology, solubility, drug content, in-vitro drug release and kinetics. The formulated rutin phytosomal nano carriers were in nanometric size, negative surface charge and exhibited porous, fluffy and rough surface. The aqueous solubility of pure rutin was found to be 1.59 µg/ml which was improved in F2 formulation which showed 42.71 µg/ml aqueous solubility. The in-vitro drug release studies demonstrated no significant drug release from pure drug and rutin phytosomal nano carriers up to 120 min in acidic buffer pH 1.2 whereas in the phosphate buffer pH 7.4 formulation F2 showed highest drug release of 76.9 % at the end of 24 h which followed diffusion controlled drug release mechanism. The phytosomal nanocarriers of rutin with improved solubility, dissolution characteristics found promising for better drug delivery.

Keywords: Rutin, SPC, Phytosomal Nanocarriers, Solubility, Dissolution. 

G Thangakamatchi, ‎K Elango, R Devi ‎Damanyanthi, K ‎Velmurugan

The objective of present study was to develop Gastroretentive floating microballoons of Labetalol Hydrochloride in order to achieve an extended retention in the upper GIT, which may result in enhanced absorption and thereby improved bioavailability. Gastroretentive Floating microballoons of Labetalol hydrochloride were prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method using Ethyl Cellulose and Eudragit RS100 in varying compositions and ratios. The percentage yield, particle size, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM),in vitro buoyancy, drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release, release kinetics and Stability studies were studied. The optimized formulation was filled in capsules and post formulation parameters of capsules were performed. Percentage yield of all formulations was in the range of48.33-86.25 %. The particle size of all formulations was distributed between 55.4µm – 219.33µm.Drug entrapment efficiency was in the range of80.5 to 97.2%, and in vitro buoyancy percentage was in the range of 76 – 94%. The best drug release profiles were seen with formulation F3 and F8 at the end of 12hrs.Scanning electron microscopy confirmed their spherical and circular shape with smooth surface. The release kinetics of the optimised formulation showed zero order kinetics. Stability studies indicated that the formulation is stable as per ICH guidelines. The data obtained in this study suggest that Gastroretentive floating microballoons of Labetalol Hydrochloride are promising for controlled drug delivery. It also shows that as increase in drug: polymer ratio affects the particle size, in vitro buoyancy and drug release.

Keywords: Labetalol Hydrochloride, Floating Microballoons, Hollow Microspheres, Controlled Release, Floating Microspheres, Gastroretentive Drug Delivery.

Adsul Shital, ‎Bhagwat ‎Durgacharan, ‎Killedar Suresh, ‎More Harinath

Acacia Arabica L. is an important medicinal plant in Ayurveda and Unani system of medicine. Nowadays it is renamed as Vachellia arabica which belonging to family Fabaceae and subfamily Mimosaceae. The phytochemical screening of Acacia Arabica L. shows the presence of alkaloids, volatile oil, polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, resins, steroids, and terpenes.  Since all the parts of this plant are useful; it has been recognized worldwide as a multipurpose tree. The bark, root, fruit, flower, and leaf has been used for many therapeutic activities like skin disease, diarrhoea, eczema, diabetes and wound healing and it also acts as astringent, demulcent and anti-asthmatic. The plants have medicinal value due to the presence of various phytochemical constituents like carbohydrate, tannins, saponins, glycosides, and flavonoids. Since the massive study of plant Acacia arabica L has been carried out. But still, no extensive reports are available dealing with the isolation of quercetin from Acacia arabica L. pods. Thus present study deals with isolation of quercetin from pod extract of Acacia arabica L. and that was confirmed by different chromatographic and techniques like column chromatography, thin layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPTLC)  and spectral technique like  UV spectrometry, IR spectrometry, etc.

Keywords: Acacia arabica. L, Pods, Isolation, Phytochemical Screening, Quercetin, HPTLC.

Saiffi Ayasha, Kaur ‎Kiran Ajit, Gupta ‎Ramji, Parihar Lalit, ‎Kumar Sokindra

Rheumatoid arthritis include inflammation of  joints and classified as autoimmune disorder. The complete Freund’s Adjuvant induce Arthritis is the most widely used animal model of arthritis. Spironolactone have immunomodulatory, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, so might be it can use as an antiarthritic drug. The present work is to investigate the antiarthritic effect of spironolactone on CFA induced arthritis. The female rats were divided into five group containing six animal in each group and CFA induce arthritic rat were treated with spironolactone (56 mg/kg and 28 mg/kg), methotrexate and vehicle till 21st day. The results of treatment is evaluate by paw volume, body weight, ESR, arthritis index, TNF-α and IL-6. The female rats were immunized with CFA to induce rheumatoid arthritis. Spironolactone shows significant changes in all the parameters. The level of cytokines is reduced by oral administration of spironolactone. The results are nearly related as compare to methotrexate. Improvement in paw volume, body weight, ESR, arthritic score, TNF-α and IL-6 indicates that spironolactone might be used as the novel treatment of arthritis.

Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis, CFA, Spironolactone, Methotrexate.

Short Communications

Atiqur Rahman, A K ‎Azad, Nazneen ‎Ahmeda Sultana, ‎Mizanur Rahhman, ‎M Khairuzzaman, ‎Jannatun Ferdous, ‎Sharif M Shaheen

Metabolic disorders are associated with some major health complications like myocardial infarction, stroke, nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy etc. Diabetes is one of the major life threatening metabolic disorder. The present study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of Trewia nudiflora L. and study was carried out on alloxan induced experimental diabetic mice (Swiss albino) for 120 minutes treatment.  Experimental methanol extract of root of T. nudiflora showed ***P<0.001 indicates significant blood sugar lowering activity at 500mg/kg b.w and mild activity was observed at dose 250mg/kg comparing to diabetic control where metformin was used as reference positive standard. Leaves extract of T. nudiflora did not show any antidiabetic activity at both doses 250 and 500mg/kg b.w respectively. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of Glycoside, flavonoid, Tannin and steroid type of compounds. Roots extract possesses anti-diabetic effect which may be mediated through the phytochemical constituents of the plant.

Keywords: Antidiabetic, Alloxan, Blood Glucose, Trewia Nudiflora L. 

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