Volume 11

July-September 2019

Review Articles

Anton Sumarpo, ‎Caroline Tanadi, ‎Indra Putra Wendi, ‎Alfredo Bambang

Cancer immunotherapy is an ever growing approach in cancer treatment. Its’ capability to reactivate immunity against cancer, reducing cancer immune evasion, long term metastasis and recurrence further exemplify the potential to revolutionize cancer treatment. Currently available cancer immunotherapies especially cell-based immunotherapy suffer from several setbacks including the loss of HLA-1 molecules, immunosuppresive microenvironment and release of immunosuppresive molecules, all which may compromise their therapeutic effects. Recent advancement in biomaterials might present a solution to these problems. In a cancer immunotherapeutical perspective, many studies have reported the use of biomaterials in scaffolds, delivery systems, immunomodulatory adjuvants and immune cell engineering. Generally, the use of biomaterials increases specificity and decreases side effects. In this article, we provide an overview of the current perspectives of biomaterials application in cancer immunotherapy, its advantages and setbacks, and the future consideration for the use among other modalities in cancer immunotherapy.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Cancer immunotherapy, Bioscaffolds, 3D Cancer Model.

Jamadar Sarita, ‎Shirsathkrushna, ‎Mahajan Hitendra

Pellets are agglomerates of granules or core powders and blend of active pharmaceutical ingredients with pharmaceutical excipients. Pellets size ranges from size 0.5 to size 1.5 mm. The process of pellet formation known as pelletization. In relation to pharmaceuticals, pellets offer high degree of flexibility in design and development of oral dosage form. This review outlines theory of pellet formation, mechanism of drug release from multi-particulates, and factors affecting on multiparticulate system. Various pelletization techniques used for manufacturing of pellets includes agglomeration, direct pelletization, compression, extrusion–spheronization, layering technique, droplet formation, freeze pelletization, hot-melt extrusion technology (HME) and Pellet coating include fluidized bed processor. Also give idea about Characterization and application of pelletization techniques.

Keywords: Pellets, Mutiparticulate, Spheronizer, Extrusion. 

Research Articles

Sri Durga Devi ‎Nagarajan, ‎Nandhini Devi ‎Ganesan, ‎Nandakumar ‎Selvasudha, ‎Vignesh Murugan, ‎Siddharth A, ‎Pugazhendhi ‎Jeyaseelan, ‎Bavanilatha ‎Muthiah ‎

Frequent dosing is crucial for achieving therapeutic efficacy of many drugs. The approach of sustained release comes worthy here for attaining the desired therapeutic levels without the need of frequent dosing for the treatment of various disorders. Sustained delivery of the drug could reduce the dosing frequency, adverse effects such as gastrointestinal disorders and improve patient compliance. The present study aimed at formulating Celecoxib matrix tablets by direct compression and wet granulation techniques using banana peel powder as a release retardant. It is also hypothesized that the reported gastro-protective properties of banana peel powder aid a positive effect in reducing the gastro-intestinal side effects of Celecoxib in the formulation. The prepared peel powder was subjected to physicochemical and phytochemical analysis. The flow properties of granules and the uniformity of weight, crushing strength, friability, swelling index and drug content of compressed tablets were determined. In-vitro drug release studies of the matrix tablets were conducted and the release rate was found to decrease with increase in amount of peel powder. The kinetics of drug release was determined by fitting the release data to different kinetic models. Kinetic modeling of in-vitro dissolution profiles revealed the drug release mechanism ranges from Fickian transport to anomalous type and non-Fickian transport. The results suggested that wet granulation is a suitable method to formulate sustained release with banana peel powder and it can perform therapeutically better than conventional immediate release dosage form. In-vivo toxicity studies also revealed that the prepared formulations show no toxicity in zebra fish models.

Keywords: Banana Peel Powder, Matrix Tablet, Sustained Release, Musa Species, Release Retardant.

K S Srilatha, Raj ‎Kishor Ray Yadav, A ‎Geethalakshmi, K ‎Mahalingan, Priti ‎Limbu, Deependra ‎Kumar Gound, ‎Amar Kumar Gupta

Periodontal diseases are recognized as the major public health problem throughout the world. Periodontal diseases, including gingivitis and periodontitis, are serious infections that, left untreated, can lead to tooth loss. A novel periodontal film for the treatment of periodontitis was developed in the present work, for local delivery of Norfloxacin against infecting microorganisms in the periodontal pocket. Calibration curves for Norfloxacin was developed in pH 6.6 phosphate buffers at 273.8 nm respectively. FT-IR studies revealed that no interaction between the selected drug and polymers. Periodontal films were prepared by solvent casting technique using ethyl cellulose and other co-polymers in different solvents with dibutyl phthalate and polyethylene glycol as plasticizers. The formulated periodontal films were evaluated for their folding endurance, percent moisture loss, surface pH, viscosity, thickness, uniformity of weight, tensile strength, content uniformity, in-vitro release and Stability studies. Data of In-vitro release from the formulated periodontal films were fit to different equations and kinetic models to explain release kinetics. Kinetic models used were zero and first-order equations and Higuchi models. Formulation F6 released 99.74% of drug at the end of tenth day was considered as the optimized formulations F6. There were no significant changes in formulation F6 during stability study. Periodontal films might be a potential formulation for the treatment of periodontitis.

Keywords: Norfloxacin, Periodontitis, Controlled Release, Periodontal Film, Gingivitis.

Arti Mohan, ‎Payal Kesharvani

Deferasirox is an iron chelating agent used for the treatment of chronic iron overload in patients. The objective of present study is to design Deferasirox dispersible tablets to deliver optimum concentration of drug at the desired site, comparable to the innovator product. Various formulations of drug with excipients were evaluated for compatibility and formulations prepared using either the direct compression or wet granulation method and evaluated for pre and post compression parameters and the dissolution data, subjected to kinetic evaluation and compared with that of the innovator product. The drug and the excipients were found to be compatible. Formulation 8prepared by using wet granulation method exhibited disintegration time of (35 sec), dispersion time (67 sec) and percentage of drug release (98.3 %) was found to be satisfactory. So, the batch size was increased in order to check for the reproducibility of the formulation. Optimized formulation followed 1st order kinetics.

Keywords: Deferasirox, Chelating Agent, Dispersible Tablets, Dissolution, Stability, Innovator.

A K Azad, Fahadul Islam, Md Faysal, Susmita Saha, Md Mominur Rahman, Md Al Amin

The Limonia acidissima L is one of the useful traditional medicinal plants. In the rural area a lot of people use the Limonia acidissima L. for treating indigestion, flatulence, diarrhoea, dysentery and haemorrhoids. The present study was aimed to evaluate the various pharmacological efficacies of methanolic and acetonic fruit peels extracts of Limonia acidissima L. For cytotoxic activity, methanolic and acetonic extracts showed LC50 value 76.73 and 68.31μg/ml; respectively. On the other hand, the reference standard vincristine sulphate showed LC50 value was 2.63 μg/ml. In the thrombolytic activity the methanolic and acetonic extracts showed clot lysis (32.89%) and (32.43%); respectively. The standard of Streptokinase showed clot lysis (68.42%). This study will reveal the phytochemicals, cytotoxic and thrombolytic activity which may be used in future to open a new line of investigation.

Keywords: Fruit Peels, Streptokinase, % of Clot Lysis, Cytotoxic Activity, Vincristine Sulphate.

Md Mizanur Rahman, Sara Jaman Talukdar, Md Abdul Lahil Kafi, Md A K Azad


The objective of this study was to develop formulation of ranitidine 150 mg film coated tablets; compare in-vitro evaluation of self designed formulation with innovator brand of Ranitidine (Zantac) & other four different available brands and to compare the physicochemical equivalency of the five brands. The tablets were prepared by using dry granulation method. All the coated tablets passed weight variation test as the percentage of weight variation was within USP limits of ± 7.5% of the average weight. The chemical assay test of all the tablets showed that none had potency less than the required specifications of USP. The in vitro dissolution test results were found within the USP recommended limits for ranitidine 150 mg film coated tablets. The comparative in-vitro study of FR with innovator & four different brands showed that FR has almost comparable characteristics with these brands. This study also proved the physicochemical equivalency of the innovator & four different brands. So if one brand is not available in the market then any of the other four brands can be taken in place of that unavailable brand.

Keywords: Ranitidine, Innovator Drug, In-Vitro Study, Dissolution, Physicochemical Equivalency.

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