Volume 12

April-June 2020

Review Articles

Roaddy Wellborn Marbaniang, Sajeev Kumar B, Sujit Nayek


Transdermal drug delivery is a forward-looking approach which complements the constraints of standard drug delivery systems such as oral and injectable techniques. This delivery path enables both easy and painless delivery of drugs and a continuous release profile. Ethosomal hydrogel or Nano hydrogel is an innovative approach for transdermal drug delivery system which combines the benefits of both hydrogel as well as ethosome in delivery of drugs. Hydrogels are relatively similar to natural tissue as they possess a degree of flexibility  due to their significant high water content and also helps in skin hydration which is one of the most significant factors in determining percutaneous absorption  rate of a given drug molecule. Using carriers system, such as ethosomes have demonstrated promising results in transdermal drug delivery capable of delivering drugs to the deeper skin tissues more effectively and efficiently. This review highlights and presents an overview on ethosomal-loaded hydrogel, method of preparation, characterization, evaluation and application ethosomal hydrogel in transdermal drug delivery.

Keywords: Transdermal Drug Delivery System (TDDS), Hydrogel, Ethosome, Ethosomal-Loaded Hydrogel, Cross-Linking.

Ranjitha M, Mohammad Azamthulla, K Shwetha, Ashoka Babu V L


Nyctanthes arbor tristis Linn is one of the important medicinal plant widely distributed throughout India. Herbal medicine maintained their popularity because of cultural reasons. Nearly 25%of prescribed drugs are derived from plant sources. Nyctanthes arbor tristis linn is type of ornamental plant used for decorative purposes but it has more medicinal values in each part of the plant. It’s availability is from sub-Himalayan region to Southward Godavari region. It is derived from two Greek word ‘Nykhta’-Night and ‘anthos’-flower. It is a type of mythological plant which is having high medicinal values. This also called as Night Flowering Jasmine because flowering of buds will takes place only during night time and start fall from midnight and become dull in the early morning or during sun raise hence it is called as “Tree of Sadness”. By extracting various active constituents from different parts of plant body are used for the management various disorder. Because of presence of  high content phytochemicals such as Flavanol glycosides, essential oils, tannic acid, lupeol and oleanic acid, this Night flowering jasmine extract is used in various treatment of diseases and reported as Hepatoprotective, Anti-malarial,  Anti-inflammatory agent, Anti-Cancer and Anti-oxidant activity. At present world’s population, 99% of the peoples are seeking towards herbal medicines due to its less side effects, less ADR, less toxicity and also less cost. Hence at present review emphases on history of herbal medicines, botanical description of coral jasmine, morphology, active constituents, biological activities of essential compounds, synonyms, and pharmacological activities.

Keywords: Nyctanthes arbor tristis Linn, Anti-Oxidant, Herbal Medicine, Traditional Medicine, Arbortristoside.

Research Articles

Abiodun O Shittu, Ibn U Umar, Ngaitad S Njinga

Orally disintegrating/ rapid dissolving tablets are an emerging trend in novel drug ‎delivery system. This can be attained by addition of different excipients, from ‎which disintegrant is the key adjuvant. In the present work, an attempt has been ‎made to develop rapid disintegrating tablets of Ciprofloxacin by fabricating an ‎extra-superdisintegrant and incorporates as a tablet buster. A solvent evaporation ‎method of co processing was used to form a composite extra-super disintegrant ‎from sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium. Blend of all the ‎formulations showed good flow properties such as angle of repose, bulk density, ‎tapped density. All the formulations were prepared by direct compression ‎method using 8mm punch on single station Carver hydraulic press and evaluated ‎for tablet properties. The co-processed extra-superdisintegrants were also ‎characterized by FTIR Studies. There was no chemical interaction between drug ‎and excipients. The in-vitro disintegration times (DT) of rapid dissolving tablets ‎were found to be 3.03±0.06 to 20.0±2.0seconds. The composite extra ‎superdisintegrant “CSD5” produced RDT “CTCSD5” with crushing strength of 9.40 ‎‎+ 0.62, DT of 3.40 + 0.06 seconds, this could be a promising approach to enhance ‎tablet breakdown, with subsequent increase in drug dissolution and improved ‎bioavailability. The novel extra-superdisintegrant showed significant reduction in ‎DT when compared with the primary composite (P<0.05). The designed and ‎engineering of the novel extra-super disintegrant was excellent, and the ‎utilization in the formulation of rapid disintegrating tablet was a success.‎

Keywords: Extra Superdisintegrant, ‎ Rapid Disintegrating Tablets, ‎Mouth Disintegrating, Fast Disintegrating Tablets, ‎Ciprofloxacin Fast Dissolving ‎Tablets.‎

Nalam Vishwanadh Gupta, Pankaj Wadhwa, Rajesh Kumar

Telmisartan is member of BCS class II with oral bioavailability of 40% and antagonizes the action of non-peptide amphiphilic AT1 receptor. In present study, the author aimed to modify its dissolution profile by formulating in nano suspension form by using solvent evaporative technique. Various combination of stabilizer and a surfactant are used and their concentrations were optimized for cumulative percentage release, saturation solubility and particle size (nm) by the means of 32 full factorial design. The particle size of the optimized batches were found to be of  335.5 ± 8.45 nm, 554.6 ± 15.11 nm, respectively. The results of in vitro drug release study of optimized batches exhibited significant improvement in the dissolution rate and saturation solubility when compared with marketed formulation.

Keywords: Dissolution Rate, Nanosuspension, Saturation Solubility, Telmisartan, Solvent Evaporative Technique.

Sahul Hameed Niyaz U, Daisy Chella Kumari S

The aim of this study was to formulate, characterize and evaluation of solid lipid ‎nanoparticles (SLNs) of practically insoluble bromocriptine mesylate to enhance ‎its solubility and to improve its oral bioavailability by avoiding first pass effect as ‎well as to produce control release action of the drug from the SLNs for an efficient ‎management of Parkinson’s Disease in addition to an improvement of the patient ‎compliance. The SLNs were prepared by the Emulsification-Solvent Evaporation ‎method using glycerylbehenate as lipid and pluronic F-68 were used as stabilizer ‎and Ethanol and chloroform used as a solvent. The prepared SLNs then tested for ‎entrapment efficiency, solubility analysis, in vitro drug release then characterize ‎‎(Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), particle size distribution, zeta potential) ‎and evaluate their flow property, uniformity of weight, in vitro disintegration test, ‎drug content, in vitro drug release, release kinetics, in vivo studies and stability ‎studies of optimized SLNs and filled in Hard Gelatin Capsules (HGC). The SLNs ‎release the drug in contolled manner upto 12hrs. From the animal study, it was ‎concluded that the group treated with optimized SLN.G5 showed better and ‎sustained reduction in parkinson’s symptoms as compared to control group and ‎the group treated with pure drug formulation, indicated improvement in ‎bioavailability of drug.‎

Keywords: Bromocriptine Mesylate, SLNs, Emulsification-Solvent Evaporation, Bioavailability, Pharmacodynamic Study.

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