Volume 12

July-September 2020

Review Articles

Ashish Kumar Varma, Divya Dwivedi

The most growing branch in the pharmaceutical science is “pharmaceutical nanotechnology”. Pharmaceutical nanotechnologies have been gained a special recognition due to continuous increasing number of poor aqueous soluble compounds. Various pharmaceutical companies already manufactured the nanosized product which is available in market. Nanosized (10-1000nm) solid colloidal microscopic particles are called as nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are act as a drug delivering carrier for the small and large molecules. They have a potential to deliver the drug in a control rate. It has ability to target particular organs or tissues. Nanoparticles deliver the protein, peptide and genes also carriers of DNA in gene therapy. Various types of Nano pharmaceuticals systems like carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, dendrimers, etc have brought about revolutionary changes in drug delivery. TEM is microscopic technique to analyse nanoparticle size and shape, since it provides not only direct images of the sample but also the most accurate estimation of the nanoparticle homogeneity. This review article discussed the classification, various methods of preparation like Emulsion-Solvent Evaporation method, Double emulsion and evaporation method, Salting out Method, Emulsions- Diffusion Method, Solvent Displacement / Precipitation method, and their characterization techniques like, drug loading, drug release along with the application of nanoparticles. This article also include list of some relevant (polymer-based and lipid-based) organic and inorganic nanomedicines which is approved by the FDA and future aspects.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Nanotubes, Nanospheres, Drug, Method, Particles, Dendrimers, Distribution, Characterization.

Research Articles

Hanane Khither, Asma Mosbah, Soraya Madoui, Kamel Mokhnache, Widad Sobhi

The aim of the present study is to evaluate the in vitro anti-arthritic effect of thymoquinone (TQ), the possible protective effects of TQ against collagen II-induced rheumatoid arthritis, in male rats with influence of orally TQ treatment in rheumatoid arthritis score and its effect on the accompanying xanthine oxidase activity, in plasma, liver and spleen homogenates. In vitro anti-arthritic activity was evaluated using BSA denaturation inhibition test. Rheumatoid arthritis was induced in rats by intradermal injection of collagen II at dose of 03 mg/kg, emulsified in Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (V/V), the arthritic rats were treated with TQ for 40 days, using two doses (05 and 10 mg/kg). Then, xanthine oxidase activity was estimated in both plasma and tissue homogenates of arthritic and TQ-treated rats, using spectrophotometry methods. This study revealed a significant in vitro anti-arthritic activity in dose dependent manner. Collagen II-induced rheumatoid arthritis is accompanied by a significant increase of xanthine oxidase activity in plasma, liver and spleen. In addition, TQ treatment led to restore xanthine oxidase activity in a dose dependent manner. Thymoquinone possesses significant anti-arthritic activity which expressed by the decreased arthritic score, a delay in the onset of the disease and inhibition of xanthine oxidase inhibition activity, in both plasma and tissue homogenates.

Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis, Collagen, Thymoquinone, Xanthine Oxidase, Anti-Arthritic.

Thoraya Guemmaz, Lekhmici Arrar, Iman Namoune, Abderrahmane Baghiani

Xanthium strumarium L., commonly known as cocklebur, is a species of annual plant belonging to the Compositae family. This plant is prescribed to treat bacterial infections, urticaria, arthritis, chronic bronchitis, rhinitis, allergic rhinitis, edema, lumbago, and other ailments. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant properties of leaf extracts from Xanthium strumarium and the anti-inflammatory effect of its crude extract. In the present study, four extracts were prepared : crude extract (CrE), chloroformic extract (ChE), ethyl acetate extract (EAE) and aqueous extract (AqE). Their antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro by the use of chelation of ions and trapping hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide tests. Anti-inflammatory activity was tested by the induction of ear edema using two different molecules; xylene and croton oil. Carrageenan was used to induce paw edema in rats. Doses administrated in this test were 200, 400 and 600 mg / Kg.  Results showed that, in the case of antioxidant activity, CrE showed high efficiency in the iron chelation test (IC50 = 0.47 ± 0.008 mg / ml).  In the test of scavenging  hydroxyl radicals, EAE  displayed  the most potent antioxidant capacity (IC50 =  0.240 ± 0.0158 mg / ml). Whereas in the test of trapping hydrogen peroxide CrE extract was the more efficient (IC50 = 0.114 ± 0.001 mg / ml). Treatment with the crud extract of Xanthium strumarium shows significant inhibition of  the ear edema induced by xylene, this effect is comparable to that of aspirin. In addition, significant inhibition of ear edema induced by croton oil was observed in mice with values ​​significantly greater than that of indometacin. In the case of carrageenan-induced paw-edema in the rat, administered doses of Xanthium strumarium generally reduced edema. These results show that Xanthium strumarium possess antioxidant properties, and high anti-inflammatory activity, which explains its use in traditional medicine.

Keywords: Xanthium Strumarium, Polyphenols, Antioxidant Activity, Anti-Inflammatory Activity, Xylene, Croton Oil, Carrageenan.

Dalila Bencheikh, Amel Bouaziz, Seddik Khennouf, Saliha Dahamna

Eucalyptus globulus is commonly used in folk medicine in the management of diabetes mellitus in South America, Africa and Iran. The paper aims to give a comprehensive account of the effect of methanolic extract of Eucalyptus globules (EGE) on in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. The in vitro antioxidant activity was investigated using different tests. In addition, HPLC TOF-MS analysis was carried out.  Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of a freshly prepared streptozotocin (STZ) solution (50 mg/kg) to experimental Albino male rats. Then, diabetic rats were categorized into five groups. The first group received distilled water (control one). The second and the third groups were treated with EGE at doses of 150 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg, respectively. The fourth group received Glibil (3mg/kg) and the last one was not treated (untreated group). After 18 days of treatment, the level of plasma glucose, catalase (CAT) activity, protein levels were assayed in liver homogenates. The EGE enriched on flavonoids where quercetin-3-β-D-glucosidewas detected as a major compound. Moreover, it was found that EGE increased significantly the in vitro antioxidant activity and decreased the glucose levels and increased plasma antioxidant capacity, CAT activity levels. Also, it reduced the histological changes in the tissues of pancreas. These results suggest a scientific basis for the use of Eucalyptus globules probably as antioxidant power and antidiabetic treatment in traditional medicine.

Keywords: Antidiabetic Activity, Antioxidant Activity, Eucalyptus Globulus, Phenolic Composition, Streptozotocin.

Mounira Merghem, Saliha Dahamna

The plant Centaurium erythraea is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of the many diseases. The aim of present study is to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of Centaurium erythraea in Swiss albino mice. mice were administered a single dose of 2000 mg/kg and 5000 mg/kg orally and then observed individually for the first four hours, then over a period of 24 hours and at least once daily for 14 days. Results showed that a single administration of the aqueous extract of Centaurium erythraea up to a dose of 5000 mg/kg did not cause any mortality or signs of toxicity in the mice tested during the observation period. There were no significant differences in body weight, food consumption, absolute organ weights between controls and treated animals. Biochemical analysis showed no differences in parameters examined. No histological changes were observed in organs of treated mice compared to control. These results indicates the safety usage of extract from this plant in traditional medicine.

Keywords: Centaurium Erythraea, Acutetoxicity, Biochemical Parameters, Histopathology Examination.

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