Volume 14

July-September 2022

Review Articles

Sandhya S Shewale, Jameel Ahmed S Mulla


Niosomes are vesicles that are created by hydrating a mixture of lipids that are biodegradable, non-ionic surfactant, and cholesterol. In comparison to a drug’s traditional dosing form, niosomes boost the drug’s action. Drugs that are amphiphilic or lipophilic can be transported via niosomes. The problems associated with pharmaceutical instability, rapid disintegration, insolubility, and low bioavailability may be resolved by niosomes. The manner of formulation determines whether niosomes are multilamellar or unilamellar in structure. For the site-specific administration of anti-cancer, anti-infective drugs, etc., niosomes have a very effective drug delivery capability. In comparison to other drug formulations, niosomes are stable and inexpensive carriers. Niosomes are also used in innovative drug delivery systems, topical drug delivery systems, oral drug delivery systems, and parental drug delivery systems. This review provides an extensive summary of niosomal studies to date, as well as a detailed look at formulation aspects, niosome types, physical characterization methods, and recent pharmaceutical applications like transmucosal, oral, ocular, topical, and pulmonary drug delivery as well as cosmetic applications.

Keywords: Non Ionic Surfactant Vesicle, Niosomes, Preparation, Characterization, Applications.

Ankita Pokhriyal, Geetika Tripathi


Nanotechnology, as defined by the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), is the study and use of structures roughly in the size range of 1 to 100 nm. Nanoparticles render a promising drug delivery system of controlled and targeted drug release. Nanoparticles are defined as particulate dispersions or solid particles with a size in the range of 10-1000nm. The drug is dissolved, entrapped, encapsulated or attached to a nanoparticle matrix. Depending upon the method of preparation, nanoparticles, nanospheres or nanocapsules can be obtained. Nanoparticles specially designed to release the drug in the vicinity of target sites. Nanomedicine and nano delivery systems are a relatively new but rapidly evolving science in which nanoscale materials are used as diagnostic tools or to deliver therapeutic agents to specific targeted sites in a controlled manner. In this article we have discussed about nanoparticles and its evaluation parameters.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Nanotechnology, Polymers, Nanocapsules

Research Articles

Ashish Kumar Varma, Namita Arora

To solve the problem of low drug availability in the body, acyclovir was fabricated into biodegradable gelatin nanoparticles by stepwise two-times desolvation method where gelatin was used as biodegradable polymer and glutaraldehyde was utilized as a cross-linking agent. Optimization was conceded by design expert computational application whereby the outcome of gelatin polymer concentration (X1) and glutaraldehyde-crosslinking agent (X2) were studied on particle size (Y1), zeta potential (Y2) and entrapment efficiency (Y3). The drug-loaded gelatin nanoparticles formulations were characterized by particle size, surface charge, and entrapment efficiency. Drug-loaded gelatin nanoparticles were also evaluated by ANOVA studies. The optimized formulation (F9) of 0.8% gelatin polymer (X1) and 250 μL of glutaraldehyde-crosslinking agent (X2) containing acyclovir: gelatin ratio of 1:8 , which showed a particle size, zeta potential and maximum entrapment efficiency of 139.87 nm, -32.67mv and 91.23% respectively.

Keywords: Gelatin, Nanoparticles, Acyclovir, Glutaraldehyde, Optimization, Zeta Potential. 

Widad Fatmi, Yuva Bellik, Nasreddine Mekhoukh, Yasmina Souagui, Taqiyeddine Bensouilah, Hassina Guergour

As part of the valuation of local medicinal plants, we are interested in the study of the physicochemical and phytochemical composition, and the antioxidant properties of different extracts (acetonic, ethanolic and methanolic extracts) prepared from the leaves of Artemisia herba-alba and Olea europaea L. The physicochemical analysis of the plants powder revealed that Artemisia herba-alba contained approximately 7.86 % water, 5.99 % mineral salts, and 4.94 % fat, while Olea europaea L. contained 8.23% water, 3.51% mineral salts, and 2.81% fat. The results showed that the methanolic extract of Artemisia herba-alba exhibited the highest level of phytochemicals (24.8 %) whereas for Olea europaea L. it was the ethanolic extract which showed substantial level of bioactive compounds (37.65 %). The highest concentrations of polyphenol, flavonoid, tannin and chlorophyll pigments were obtained with acetonic extracts for both studied plants. The strongest anti-free radical activity with DPPH, reducing power, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were obtained with the acetonic extract for Artemisia herba-alba (IC50 = 0.611 mg/mL, EC50 = 5.03mg/mL, TAC = 97.91μg AAE/mg dw), and methanolic extract for Olea europaea L. (IC50 = 0.56 mg/mL, EC50 = 0.83 mg/mL, TAC = 150.49 μg AAE/mg dw).

Keywords: Artemisia herba-alba, Olea europaea L., Secondary Metabolites, Antioxidant Activity.



Mounira Merghem, Wafa Nouioua

Mentha is a genus belonging to the family of Lamiaceae, whose plants are among the most aromatic and spread in diverse environments worldwide. The aim of this study is to evaluate the total phenolics and flavonoids contents and the in vitro antioxidant activities of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Mentha suaveolens. The Folin–Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenols content while flavonoids were estimated according to the aluminum chloride colorimetric method. Also the antioxidant activities were determined by two methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and β-carotene linoleic acid. The total polyphenols content of the aqueous extract was 240.66±30.42µg GAE/ mgE and flavonoids were 18.35±0.57µg QE/mgE. The total polyphenols content of the ethanolic extract was 219.217±20.63µg GAE/mgE and flavonoids were 20.59±0.6µg QE/ mgE. In the DPPH assay the aqueous extract showed the higher scavenging capacity (IC50 = 0.035 ± 0.001 mg/ml), followed by ethanolic extract with IC50 of 0.049 ± 0.000 mg/ml. In the test of β-carotene /linoleic acid, the percentage of inhibition was 66.954 ± 2.64% of aqueous extract and 74.329 ± 2.03% of ethanolic extract.

Keywords: Mentha suaveolens, Antioxidant Activity, Polyphenols, DPPH Scavenging, Β-Carotene.


Hakima Beldi, Lynda Gali, Amel Benbott, Amel Boudechicha, Chawki Bensouici, Abdelouahab Yahia, Nadia Benzidane

El-Kabbar or Caper (Capparis spinosa L.) is a xerophilic shrub that has a great capacity to resist extreme environmental conditions and can therefore be of great interest for the discovery of new molecules. Thus, the present study evaluated the antioxidant, anticholinesterase, and antibacterial activities of the methanolic extract of different parts (leaves, stems, and roots) of Capparis spinosa L. DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, reducing power, and β-carotene bleaching test were adopted to study the antioxidant activity. The extracts were also examined for their inhibitory capacity on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and for their antibacterial activity assessed by the disk diffusion method against four bacterial strains. The extracts have substantial levels of phenolic compounds mainly concentrated in the leaves. Significant antioxidant activity was displayed by the different plant organs, mainly the leaves which showed the strongest effect. This activity showed a strong correlation with their phenolic content. The different parts of the plant showed no AChE inhibition, while only the roots showed a slight BChE inhibition effect (IC50 = 150.77 ± 80.56 µg/mL). Moreover, all extracts were inactive against E. faecalis and K. pneumoniae, while only leaves and roots at 100 mg/mL exerted weak inhibition against E. coli and S. aureus. Extracts from this plant have shown. The results indicated that the methanolic extract of Capparis spinosa L. leaves possessed strong antibacterial and antioxidant properties and could be an important source of natural compounds for the development of new drugs.‎

Keywords: Capparis spinosa L., Antioxydant Activity, Phenolic Contents, Correlation, Anticholinesterase Activity, Antibacterial Effect.

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