Volume 14

April-June 2022

Review Articles

Ashish Kumar Varma, Namita Arora

The crucial significance of nanomaterials-based nanostructures has ushered in a new era of nanomedicine. Nanoparticles have evolved into the primary catalyst for the modification of numerous traditional materials’ properties due to their smaller size and larger surface area, which causes them to be more reactive to other molecules. Nanoparticles have better biocompatibility and biodegradability, as well as the ability to modify surfaces. Nanomedicine has opened up a new therapeutic route for combating viral infections and improving treatment outcomes. Antiviral release kinetics could be altered, increasing bioavailability, improving efficacy, limiting adverse drug side effects, and lowering treatment costs with nanoparticulate-based devices. They may also allow antiviral medications to be delivered to specific target locations and viral reservoirs in the body. These appearances are most common in viral infections, where more treatment doses are required; pharmaceuticals are expensive, and therapeutic success is dependent on a patient’s compliance with the administration protocol. This review discusses the current state of nanoparticulate delivery systems in antiviral therapy, as well as its definition and description, as well as certain unique characteristics. The report concludes with a review of the various hurdles that must be overcome before nanotechnology may be used to develop safe and effective antiviral compositions for clinical use.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Herpes Viruses, Antivirals, Solubility, Bioavailability.

Ashita Singh, Subhanshu Katiyar, Ashish Srivastava

Niosomes are nonionic surfactant-based vesicles that are biodegradable, relatively nontoxic, more stable, and less expensive than liposomes. The bilayer structure of niosomes makes them one of the greatest transporters. In aqueous media, nonionic surfactants form a closed bilayer vesicle based on their amphiphilic nature, using energy such as heat or physical agitation to form this structure, with the hydrophobic part remaining away from the aqueous solvent and the hydrophilic part remaining towards the aqueous solvent. The main text of the article provides the overview of the niosomes including the components of the niosomes such as cholesterol and surfactants, their merits and demerits, methods of preparation, and recent advances in application of niosomes with respect to different routes of delivery like including topical, transdermal, oral, and pulmonary, trans mucosal and ocular drug delivery. Niosomes have been intensively explored in recent years for a variety of uses, including topical, transdermal, oral, and pulmonary, trans mucosal and ocular drug delivery. They are simple to prepare and have a lower cost than its analogue system, liposomes, while also having a higher EE. In the disciplines of pharmaceutical and aesthetic sciences, this adaptable drug delivery technology offers a lot of potential.

Keywords: Niosomes, Compositions, Merits, Demerits, Preparation Methods, Encapsulation, Surfactants, Vesicles, Applications.

Research Articles

Rama K P, Elango K, Daisy Chella Kumari S, Thangakamatchi G

Diacerein is a new anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic drug developed from especially for the treatment of osteoarthritis. The main objective of the study was formulated and evaluated controlled release Diacerein microspheres using egg albumin. Controlled release Diacerein microspheres were prepared by chemical cross-linking method using natural polymer as a egg albumin in different ratio. The Physicochemical compatibility study of drug and polymer was studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. Prepared microspheres evaluated for morphological analysis, entrapment efficiency, drug content, in vitro drug release studies and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity study. Among the prepared formulation containing F5 containing microspheres were found to be best formulation which showed the higher drug release, good entrapment efficiency, extent in vitro drug release and satisfactory anti-inflammatory activity.

Keywords: DCN-Diacerein, OA-Osteoarthritis Egg Albumin, Chemical Cross-Linking Method, HPMC, In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity.

Mounira Merghem

The aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous (AqE) and ethanolic (EE) extracts of Sinapis alba L.. The antioxidant activity was carried out by free radical scavenging method (DPPH) and bleaching of β-carotene, the anti-inflammatory was evaluated in vitro according to the test of inhibition protein (ovalbumin) denaturation and in vivo by the ear edema test induced by xylene (topical application). According to obtained results, total polyphenols content in ethanolic extract was 133.625±4.309μgGAE/mgE, while in aqueous extract was 87.533±7.416μg GAE/mgE. Ethanolic extract was found to be richer in flavonoids (22.199±0.763μgQE/mgE) in comparison with aqueous extract (14.068±1.308μgQE/mgE). In the DPPH assay, ethanolic extract showed the higher scavenging capacity (IC50 = 0.097±0.013mg/ml) followed by aqueous extract with IC50 of 0.162±0.01mg/ml. Whereas, ethanolic extract showed the best inhibitory capacity of the coupled oxidation of linoleic acid/ β-carotene (71.024±12.9%). The anti-inflammatory activity in vitro was 66% and 72% in aqueous and ethanolic extracts respectively compared to diclofenac 62%, the anti-inflammatory activity in vivo showed that after 2 hours of the treatment by aqueous extract produced a significant inhibition 87%.

Keywords: Sinapis alba L., Polyphenols, Antioxidant Activity, Anti-inflammatory Activity.

Ahmed Reda Belmamoun, Abdelkader Ammam, Redouane Chadli, Nariman Madouni, Imane Ouali

The problem of hospital effluent discharges is increasingly important, as the drug-induced anthropization of hospital wastewater favors the emergence and dissemination in the environment of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. The present study is part of the characterization of the multi-resistance to antibiotics of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from the effluents of a health establishment. For this purpose, 30 samples of wastewater were collected from the dialysis machines in the nephrology department of the Public Hospital Establishment of Telagh. Isolation is performed on Chapman medium and identification of the strains is performed by the API Staph gallery. The isolated strains were subjected to a standard antibiogram according to the recommendations of the Institute of Clinical and Laboratory Standards for different families of antibiotics (β-lactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and sulfonamides). Biochemical identification showed that our isolates were non-S. aureus strains, normally considered coagulase-negative, were found to be coagulase positive. Our results indicated that there is a passage of multidrug-resistant staphylococci in the environment, which requires periodic monitoring of staphylococci resistance to antimicrobials to control their spread.

Keywords: Hospital Effluent, Antibiotic Resistance, Staphylococci.


El Hassen Mokrani, Soumia Teniou, Rym Gouta Demmak, Guendouze Assia, Abdelouahab Chikhi, Abderrahmane Bensegueni

The novel corona virus whose outbreak took place in December 2019 continues to spread at a rapid rate worldwide. The Main protease (Mpro) plays critical role in the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle through virus replication and transcription process making it as an attractive drug target. Herein, molecular docking study followed by drug-Likeness prediction, were performed in order to identify new potent Mpro inhibitors. Indeed, molecular docking of 1880 compounds into the Mpro active site reveals compounds S1 and S2 as promising inhibitors of this enzyme with binding energy of -39,22 KJ/mol, -36.27 KJ/mol respectively. These two compounds were also predicted to have satisfying drug likeness properties, indicating that they might be promising lead compounds for further anti-SARS CoV-2 drug research.

Keywords: Enzyme, Inhibitor, Molecular Docking, Mpro, SARS CoV-2.

Mounira Merghem, Wafa Nouioua, Nawel Merouani

In the present study, the different solvent extracts viz., ethanol and water of the medicinal plant Bellis sylvestris Cyr. (aerial parts) (Asteraceae), were evaluated for phytochemical analysis, and antioxidant activity. The polyphénols and flavonoids contents of Bellis sylvestris Cyr. extracts were determined. The highest phenolic content was obtained from ethanolic extract of Bellis sylvestris Cyr.  (221.323±10.69 μg GAE/mg extract) and lowest in aqueous extract (125.09±9.08 μg GAE/mg extract). As well as the highest concentration of Total flavonoid content was detected in ethanolic extract (27.354±0.26 μg QE/mg extract), followed by the aqueous extract (18.618±0.19 μg QE/mg extract), Ethanolic extract exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity of DPPH(0.053 ± 0.000 mg/mL) followed by the ,aqueous extract of Bellis sylvestris (0.234 ± 0.012 mg/mL). All the test extracts showed potent antioxidant capacity in the β-carotene bleaching inhibition test with (85.775% ± 14.87) for ethanolic extract and (75.766% ± 2.51) for aqueous extract, in comparison with BHT(100% ). In Conclusion, the present study concludes that the plant Bellis sylvestris Cyr. could be exploited for the isolation of bioactive compounds which could be a potential source for antioxidants.

Keywords: Bellis sylvestris Cyr., Polyphenols, Antioxidant Activity, DPPH Radical Scavenging, β-carotene/Linoleic Acid Bleaching.

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