Volume 14

January-March 2022

Review Articles

M K Andhale, R D Wagh, H D Mahajan

Nanosuspension is an attractive and promising alternative to solve these problems. Nanosuspension consists of the poorly water-soluble drug without any matrix material suspended in dispersion. Preparation of Nanosuspension is simple and applicable to all drugs which are water insoluble. A Nanosuspension not only solves the problems of poor solubility and bioavailability, but also alters the pharmacokinetics of drug and thus improves drug safety and therapeutic efficacy. Solubility is the crucial factor for drug effectiveness, independence of the route of administration. Large proportions of newly discovered drugs are water insoluble, and therefore poorly bioavailable contributing to deserted development effort. Preparation of Nanosuspension is simple and applicable to all drugs which are aqueous insoluble. Nanosuspensions are prepared by using wet mill, high pressure homogenizer, emulsion solvent evaporation, melt emulsification method and super critical fluid techniques. Nanosuspension can be prepared by using stabilizers, organic solvents and other additives such as buffers, salts, polyols, and cryoprotectant. Nanosuspensions can be delivered by oral, parenteral, pulmonary and ocular routes. Nanosuspensions can also be used for targeted drug delivery when incorporated in the ocular inserts and mucoadhesive hydrogels.

Keywords: Dissolution, Solubility, Solubility Enhancement, Surfactant.

Manu Chauhan, Ashish Kumar Varma

Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood sugar or glucose level was not into the normal blood sugar or glucose level. Various drugs uses in the Treatment of Diabetes Type-2 and act by lower your blood sugar in a variety of ways. Sulphonylureas were discovered by Auguste Loubatières as the first pharmacological family of oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs) is a kind of oral medication that works to regulate blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes by stimulating insulin synthesis in the pancreas, which increases the efficacy of insulin in the body are typically divided into two generations (1st Generation and 2nd Generation). Glibenclamide, commonly known as Glyburide, is a kind of 2nd generation Sulphonylureas used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The creation of a novel formulation including both chemicals provides significant efficiency and compliance benefits, as well as operating as a multi-target medication system. The enhancement of the solublity and formulate Enhanced formulation like Transdermal patches, Inhalers, Misopourous silica.

Keywords: Diabetes, Glibenclamide, Formulation.

Himanshi Rathaur, Deepika Joshi, Sayantan Mukhopadhyay, Suhail Karkabi

The purpose of this study was to review the literature and current guidelines for the surgical and non-surgical treatments of arthritis. Despite the fact that the published guidelines offer well-known assistance, the complexity of underlying mechanisms requires that measures designed to relieve pain. Although, surgical management consists of arthroscopy, osteotomy, arthroplasty and exercise programs for non-surgical management and it has been proven to be effective. It follows that the combination of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies offers a pleasant possibility of therapeutic success, although it remain difficult to establish the effectiveness of such complex interventions. Pharmacological therapy is often prolonged and tolerance problems prove to be as important as effectiveness over time. Recently systematic reviews and individual studies confirm the effectiveness of aerobic and strength exercise programmes and evidence for the promotion of physical activity according to public health recommendations. For exercise, physical activity programmes and selfmanagement interventions in arthritis, research is increasingly focused on optimizing their content, intensity, frequency, duration, mode of delivery and effective implementation techniques. They are recommended in young and energetic patients in regard to the risks and limited durability of total knee replacement and this is a safe method in the elderly patients. Its treatment should be initially non-operative and requires both pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches. This issue has been addressed over recent months in updated guidelines and these guidelines describe three treatments: nonpharmacological, pharmacological and surgical. This paper summarizes current surgical and non-surgical treatment strategies and focuses on the latest advances and evidence.

Keywords: Arthritis, Inflammation, Joint, Non-surgical, Pain, Surgical.

Research Articles

Oumaima Naili, Hadjer Taous, Rofaida Merdaci

This work aims to perform phytochemical analysis of hydroethanolic extracts of three medicinal plants commonly used in folk medicine (Juniperus oxycedrus, Eucalyptus globulus, and Matricaria chamomilla) and to evaluate their antibacterial potential against multi-drug resistant bacteria. Disc diffusion method has been used to determine the antibacterial activities and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of different plant extracts against four Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes) and two Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis). Antibiotic sensitivity test was performed in Mueller Hinton agar with three commonly used antibiotics (tetracycline, vancomycin and oxacillin). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins and free quinones in all the extracts, whereas alkaloids were absent. The results of antibiogram revealed that all strains were resistant to tested antibiotics with exception of Staphylococcus aureus that was found to be susceptible to oxacillin. Also, obtained results showed that hydroethanolic extracts exhibited dose-dependent growth inhibitory effects against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, while no inhibitory effect on Gram negative bacteria was observed. In conclusion, the present work provides useful baseline information for the potential use of the studied plants in the fight against MDR strains.

Keywords: Juniperus Oxycedrus, Eucalyptus Globulus, Matricaria Chamomilla, Antibacterial Activity, Multi-Drug Resistant.


Pushpraj Singh

Milk is a gift of nature to mankind that is necessary for the nutrition, growth, and development of newborn infants. Besides the other regular constituents it has oligosaccharides in it which are indigestible by the infant yet are consumed by the microbial populations in the developing intestine. These oligosaccharides are believed to facilitate enrichment of a healthy infant gastrointestinal micro biota, often associated with bifidobacteria. Goat milk is a rich source of oligosaccharides that have enormous biological activities such as anti-bacterial, immunological, anti-inflammatory, hypoallergenic, and therapeutic properties. It is used against tuberculosis in folk medicine and helps in the enhancement of platelet count during dengue fever. Goat milk oligosaccharides have anti-inflammatory properties and are involved in the repairing process after a dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis. Keeping in mind the biological importance of goat milk and the role of oligosaccharides, in the present studies, goat milk was analyzed for its oligosaccharide content which led to the isolation of a novel tetrasaccharide, Crisose, C28H48O21N2. The structure of the isolated oligosaccharide was elucidated by chemical transformation, chemical degradation, 1H, 13C, 2D-NMR (COSY, TOCSY, HMBC and HSQC) and mass spectrometry as under. The geometry of compound Crisose was optimized by B3LYP method and 6-31 G ‎‎(d,p) basis set.‎

Keywords: Carbohydrates, Oligosaccharides, Tetrasaccharide, Goat Milk, NMR, Crisos.

Mounira Merghem

Helichrysum is a well-known species in the Astéracées family. It contains many species, including Helichrysum arenarium L, which is used in traditional medicine because of its active compounds. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Helichrysum arenarium L, the results showed that the total polyphenolic content of the ethanolic extract was 224.39±7.71 μg GAE/mg extract and flavonoids was 28.4±2.343 μg QE/mg extract. The total polyphenolic content of the aqueous extract was 211.81±20.43 μg GAE/mg extract and flavonoids were 26.64±0.36 μg QE/mg extract. The antioxidant activity was determined in vitro using two methodes: DPPH free radical scavenging and ß-Caroténe linoleic acid. In the DPPH assay, ethanolic extract showed the highest scavenging capacity (IC50 = 0.036 ± 0.000 mg/ml), followed by aqueous extract with IC50 of 0.065± 0.000 mg/ml. While the ß-Caroténe /linoleic acid test showed that the aqueous extract had a greater activity compared to the ethanolic extract (85.584 ± 13.48℅, 67.049 ± 8.37℅, respectively).

Keywords: Helichrysum arenarium, Antioxidant Activity, Polyphenols, DPPH Scavenging, β-carotene.

Short Communications

Pallavi Chiprikar, Vinayak Mastiholimath

The goal is to develop and validate a simple, sensitive, precise, fast, and cost-effective method for estimating Cariprazine Hydrochloride in bulk in compliance with ICH guidelines. Linearity, Precision, Repeatability, Limit of Detection (LOD), Limit of Quantification (LOQ), Accuracy, Robustness, and Ruggedness of a simple double beam UV Spectrophotometric method have all been developed and validated. The absorbance of cariprazine hydrochoride in methanol is 252 nm. The LOD and LOQ were determined to be 1.63g/ml and 4.94g/ml, respectively, in the concentration range of 10-50 g/ml, supporting Beer’s law. The proposed approach is precise, accurate, and repeatable, and it may be used to analyse Cariprazine hydrochloride in bulk on a routine basis.

Keywords: Cariprazine Hydrochloride, Method Development, Validation, Ultraviolet Spectroscopy.

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