Volume 13

October-December 2021

Review Articles

Pushpraj Singh

Polysaccharides also known as glycans are ubiquitous biopolymers that occur widely in nature. They are obtained from renewable sources such as plants, algae and microorganisms like fungi and bacteria. They are getting more attention because they exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as anti-tumor, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticoagulant, antidiabetic, antiviral, and hypoglycemia activities, making them one of the most promising candidates in biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. In this review, we will discuss the most recent updated biological applications of polysaccharides.

Keywords: Polysaccharides, Carbohydrates, Medicinal Applications, Biological Activities.

Research Articles

Zine El Abidine Kouider, Saad Aissat, Hama Benbarek, Tayeb Gouichiche, Kada Hadidi

This study was conducted to test the therapeutic efficacy of an intrauterine infusion of two varieties of honey in the treatment of bovine endometritis. Our choice focused on animals treated with antibiotics twice or three times without success. The minimum time between the last treatment antibiotics and our study is one month.Twenty-eight cows with clinical endometritiswere divided into two groups “group A and B” each group was treated with an infusion of a honey variety by intra uterine route. The monitoring of the cows was carried before infusion of honey and 24 hours and seven days after the infusion of honey by a clinical examination; ultrasound and cytology. Fertility monitoring was carried out in eleven cows by an ultrasound examination. Seven days after the honey infusion of honey “A”, 100% of the cows with endometritis showed total reabsorption of uterine fluids with total disappearance of purulent discharge 12 of the 13 cows were in heat on the seventh day with translucent mucus. From a cytological point of view, the smears were rich in endometrial cells. Seven days after the infusion of honey “B”, 12 Vs 15 cows presented a total reabsorption of uterine fluids with total disappearance of the purulent discharge and 02 were in heat on the seventh day with translucent mucus. Cytologically, the smears were very rich in endometrial cells. In 03 cows the purulent discharge was still present. 12 Animals were inseminated in the second estrus after treatment. The conception rate was estimated after two months of the last insemination. Conception rate was 5 in group A and 3 in group B. These results show that honey has proven its therapeutic power for bovine endometritis, by its drainage effect of pathological uterine fluids, the regeneration of the endometrial epithelium and the improvement of the fertility rate.

Keywords: Sahara Honeys, Endometritis, Intra-Uterine.

Guergour Hassina, Allouni Rima, Mahdeb Nadia, Bouzidi Abdelouahab


In this study, fixed and essential oils of seeds and leaves of Peganum harmala were screened for their physicochemical, phytochemical properties and antioxidant, antimicrobial activities. Leaves essential oil was extracted following hydrodistillation method, whereas seed fixed oil was isolated with hexane using Soxhlet apparatus. Furthermore, the reported organoleptic and physicochemical characterizations were in accordance with AFNOR norms. Moreover, the antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Antibacterial effects were also estimated according to the agar well diffusion method. Besides, the determined quality indices generally meet the standards followed. A quantitative analysis of polyphenols and flavonoids was also performed. The IC50 values were 22.52 ±2.40 and 139±2.86 μg/ml, respectively, for leaves essential and seed fixed oils.  Concerning the antibacterial activity, good inhibition was observed against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Therefore, the results indicate that Peganum harmala is a rich source of oils with important activities.

Keywords: Physicochemical Properties, Fixed Oil, Essential Oils, Biological Activities, Peganum harmala.

Oumaima Naili, Zineb Belhamra, Naila Chaabna, Daoud Harzallah


The aim of this study was to assess in vivo acute toxicity of hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts of Algerian fir needles (Abies numidica) in broiler chickens. Total 18 one-day-old broiler chicks were obtained from hatchery. At three weeks of age chickens were weighed and separated into 3 groups. The control group received only distilled water, while treatment groups were orally administered 2000 mg.kg-1b.wt. of hydroalcoholic  and  aqueous  extracts  of  Abies numidica. No mortality or significant changes were observed in body weight, feed intake and feed conversion. Also, Blood parameters and relative organ weights were normal. Microscopic observations of liver and kidneys tissues of treatment and control group were similar. In conclusion, acute toxicity test indicated that extracts were not toxic when administered by the oral route to broiler chickens at 2000 mg.kg-1b.wt.

Keywords: A. numidica, Acute Toxicity, Poultry Diet, Phytobiotic.

Asma Bouguerra, Daoud Harzallah, Sabrina Bakli


The present study was carried out to assess the microbial quality of Algerian raw camel milk. A total of thirteen milk samples were collected singly from different females under rigorous hygienic conditions. They were subjected to determinations of pH, methylene blue reduction, total aerobic mesophilic flora, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus spp. and total yeast and moulds counts. Results revealed that pH levels ranged between (6.46-6.77) and all milk samples reduced methylene blue after 4 hours indicating that the milk is probably of good microbiological quality. The log count per mL for total aerobic mesophilic flora, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus spp. and total yeast and moulds count ranged between: (1.69-3.25), (1.69-3.17), (00-3.39) and (0.95-2.3) respectively. Enterobacteriaceae are absent in 69.23% of the milk samples examined and do not exceed log 1.30 CFU/mL. The results obtained of this study show that even if the hygienic conditions of milking, storage and transport are improved; the presence of certain pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus spp. in camel milk with relatively high frequency limits its consumption in the raw state especially by immunocompromised persons.

Keywords: Camel Milk, Health Risk, Hygienic Conditions, Microbial Quality.


Mounira Merghem, Nawel Merouani, Wafa Nouioua


Euphorbia helioscopia is an important medicinal herb species in the family Euphorbiaceae. Plants of Euphorbia have been used in the traditional medicine for treatment of cancers, tumors and warts for hundreds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo toxicity of aqueous extract of Eeuphorbia helioscopia in Swiss albino mice. The extract was administered orally at doses of 2000 mg/kg and 5000 mg/kg and then observed individually for the first four hours, then over a period of 24 hours and at least once daily for 14 days. The findings of this study suggest that the aqueous extract of Euphorbia helioscopia did not cause any mortality or signs of toxicity in all treatment groups. Also, there were no differences in body weight, food consumption, organ weights between controls and treated animals, and no change in the biochemical parameters. This suggests that the aqueous extract of Euphorbia helioscopia is nontoxic and safe by oral administration in mice.

Keywords: Euphorbia helioscopia, Acute Toxicity, Biochemical Analysis, Body Weight.

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