Volume 13

July-September 2021

Review Articles

Meghna A Singh, Tarani P Shrivastava, Amrita Chourasia, Madhu Gupta

Ocular Drug Delivery (ODD) is an engrossing and challenging task for ‎pharmaceutical researchers. Unique anatomy and physiology of the eye poses ‎numerous challenges for designing targeted drug delivery systems. Ocular ‎discomfort involves the anterior and posterior segment diseases like glaucoma, ‎diabetic retinopathy, glaucomatous optic neuropathies, retinal vascular diseases, ‎posterior uveitis, and age-related macular degeneration that lead to distress, ‎inflammation and severe retinal disorders. Conventional treatments such as eye ‎drops, injections and implants suffer from a low ocular bioavailability due to ‎various anatomical and pathophysiological barriers. To deal with these problems ‎pharmaceutical researchers explored nanotechnology-based drug delivery ‎systems like polymeric and lipidic nanoparticles, liposomes, cubosomes, ‎nanoemulsions, niosomes, nanomicelles, dendrimers, microneedles, etc. These ‎nano-systems have achieved great success in solving the problems like drug ‎retention, bioavailability, sustained and targeted drug delivery without affecting ‎the eye tissues. This review provides an insight into recent advancements and the ‎emerging challenges for nanotechnology-based formulation development in the ‎area of ocular drug delivery and emphasizes applications of nanotechnology in ‎disease diagnostic in ophthalmology.‎

Keywords: Nanotechnology, Nanoparticle, Liposome, Hydrogel, Eye, Ocular Drug Delivery.

Research Articles

Ganesh Kumar, Meenakshi Bhatt, Prabhakar Prasad Badoni

A micro bead-loaded bio adhesive gel containing the drug voriconazole was developed. Micro beads give extended drug release, and bio adhesive was used to improve the stability of the product. Micro beads were examined for micromeritic properties, swelling index, drug loading, percent yield and encapsulation efficiency. pH, spreadability, extrudability, homogeneity, viscosity, and bio adhesion test of the bio adhesive gel were all evaluated. The swelling index ranged from 55 to 82 %, indicating that micro beads have moderate to good swelling properties. The percent drug loading was calculated to be between 71.37 % 0.07 to 87.59 % 0.91. The percent yield of various formulations F1 – F5 was calculated and found to be between 39.52 % +0.23 and 72.13 % ±2.42. For the formulation F3, the maximum % yield was found to be 72.13 %. The % encapsulation efficiency was found to be between 50.80 +52 to 78.420+09, indicating moderate to good efficiency. The pH range of all formulations was within the specified range for the drug delivery system. F1 and F5 formulations had a viscosity range of 25485.50 to 37211.58 cp. The greatest spreadability of the F3 formulation was determined to be 9.09 gm cm/sec.. The viscosity and extrudability have an inverse relationship i.e. the lower the viscosity, the higher the extrudability. Bio adhesion strength was founded within the range of 16.7±0.04 to 21.1±0.13 gm respectively. Highest strength was founded in F3. After 12 hours, the total percent release was measured in SVF (4.5) were 85.16-77.28. The results show that as the polymer concentration is increased, the release of drug from the micro beads laden gel decrease. In comparison to market formulations (Verz 200 tablet), voriconazole micro beads laden gel was found to more effectively limit the growth of Candida albicans in an antifungal investigation.

Keywords: Micro Beads Loaded Bio Adhesive Gel, Bio Adhesion, Antifungal Activity.

Rima Allouni, Hassina Guergour, Nadia Mahdeb, Abdelouahab Bouzidi

The toxicity caused by medicinal plants using for treatment is now one of the causes of poisoning of people reported by hospitals. This study aimed to evaluate the acute toxicity of the total alkaloids of the aerial parts of Ruta montana L on female mice. The extraction of total alkaloids from the aerial part of Ruta montana L is obtained by liquid-liquid extraction. The LD50 was determined using Litchfield and Wilcoxon method and in acute toxicity a single intra-peritoneal administration of total alkaloid extracted at 75.23 mg/kg (1/3 LD50). Body weight, biochemical and hematological parameters were recorded with histopathological examination of liver, kidneys and brain. The LD50 is estimated to be 217 ± 8.3 mg / kg. The acute toxicity study was showed a significant increase in the relative weight of the liver after 24h. Serum parameters (AST, ALT, PAL, Urea and Creatinine) did not show any significant change with perturbation of some blood parameters after 24 h and renal congestion with cerebral edemas are observed on histological sections of the kidneys and brain of female mice.  This study revealed that the total alkaloids of Ruta montana L were classified as very toxic chemical products.

Keywords: Ruta Montana L., Total Alkaloids, LD50, Acute Toxicity, Mice.

Ankita B Hogale, Jameel Ahmed S Mulla

In the event of chronic illnesses, fast-dissolving drug delivery systems have been created as an alternative to traditional dosage forms as an oral mode of drug delivery. Fast dissolving films are now favoured over traditional tablets and capsules for disguising the taste of bitter medications and increasing patient compliance. In this study, montelukast sodium-loaded fast dissolving oral films were made using HPMC K-100 and the solvent casting method. Disintegration time, thickness, tensile strength, percent elongation, folding endurance, moisture content, surface pH, content uniformity, swelling index, FTIR Spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, and an in-vitro dissolution investigation were all used to describe the prepared films. The chemical structure of montelukast sodium was preserved in the formulation, according to FTIR analysis. At the end of 5 minutes, the drug release was found to be between 90.75 and 99.14 percent.

Keywords: Rapidly Dissolving Film, Montelukast Sodium, Solvent Casting Method, Buccal Film.

Karima Loucif, Hassiba Benabdallah, Fatima Benchikh, Soulaf Mehlous, Chawki Ben Souici, Smain Amira

Free radicals or highly reactive oxygen species are capable of inducing oxidative damage to the human body. Antioxidants are the compounds which terminate the attack of reactive species and reduce the risk of diseases. Plants containing phenolic compounds have potent antioxidant capacity. The objective of this study is to evaluate total polyphenols and flavonoids contents (TPC and TFC) as well as examine the in vitro anti-oxidative properties from hydromethanolic (Crude) extract of Athamanta sicula L. (ASCE) TPC and TFC were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride methods, respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using phenanthroline and ABTS assays. The results showed that the Athamanta sicula L. ASCE was rich in total polyphenols (149.58 ± 0.77 µg gallic acid equivalent/mg of the dry weight of plant extract) and flavonoids (40.48 ± 3.97µg quercetin equivalent/mg of the dry weight of plant extract). ASCE showed high ABTS radical scavenging activity with an IC50 of 31.14±1.78µg/mL. Phenanthroline assay showed that the ASC Eextract exhibited a strong effect with an A0.5 of 167.2±20 µg/mL. These findings provide evidence that Athamanta sicula L. is a potential source of natural antioxidants.

Keywords: Athamanta sicula L., Phenanthroline, ABTS, Flavonoids, Phenolic Compounds.

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