Volume 13

April-June 2021

Review Articles

Jameel Ahmed S Mulla, Biradev S Karande

A hydrogel is a network of water-insoluble polymer chains that can also be found ‎as a colloidal gel with water as the dispersion medium. Hydrogels are natural or ‎manufactured polymers that are superabsorbent (they can hold over 99 percent ‎water). Topical medicines are utilized for localized effects at the application site ‎due to medication penetration into the deeper layers of the skin or mucous ‎membranes. Microemulsions are thermodynamically stable, fluid, transparent ‎‎(or translucent) colloidal dispersions made up of an oil phase, aqueous phase, ‎surfactant, and co-surfactant in appropriate ratios that form a single optically ‎isotropic solution with droplet diameters typically ranging from 10 to 100 ‎nanometers. Transparency, low viscosity, and, most importantly, thermodynamic ‎stability and capacity to form spontaneously separate micro-emulsions from ‎conventional emulsions. As a topical medication delivery system, micro-emulsions ‎provide a number of advantages over standard creams, gels, and solutions. The ‎Hydrogel technology based on microemulsion will be able to sustain therapeutic ‎concentration at the site of action while also increasing bioavailability. This ‎review focuses on the method of preparation, characterization, evaluation, and ‎stability investigations of microemulsion-based hydrogel.‎

Keywords: Microemulasion, Microemulsion-based Hydrogel, Ternary Phase Diagram, Preparation, Characterization.

Research Articles

S Raja Sundaram, K Ramesh Kumar, S Sudharsan, S Naveen Kumar

The present work aimed at preparing films of amlodipine with the reason of developing a dosage from for a very fast onset of action, which is beneficial in managing servere conditions of hypertension, aiding in the enhancement of bioavailability, and is very convenient for administration, without the problem of swallowing and using water. Amlodipine is a calcium channel blocker that dilates (widens) blood vessles, improves blood flow hence used to treat chest pain (angina) and other conditions caused by coronary artery disease. The films were prepared by a solvent casting method with polymers like hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), PVP, PVA and HPC, superdisintegrants SSG. Compatibility study between drug and physical mixture was performed by FT-IR. The films were characterized for various physiochemical properties such as, physical appearance, surface texture, weight uniformity, thickness, drug content, Percentage elongation, moisture content, in vitro study and stability study etc. Compatibility study showed no any kind of interaction between ingredients used. It was observed that concentration of polymer showed effects on physical parameter and dissolution time of formulation. A marked increase in the disintegration time was exhibited by fast-dissolving film containing low concentration of polymers when compared with other films. Fast dissolving films of amlodepine can be considered suitable for clinical use in the treatment of heart disease and other conditions of coronary artery disease, where a quicker onset of action for a dosage form is desirable along with the convenience of administration.

Keywords: Amlodipine Besylate, Fast Dissolving Film, Physical Charcterization, Disintegration Study, In Vitro Release Profile.

Gaamoune Sofiane, Nouioua Wafa

Lysimachia cousiniana Coss. et DR is Algerian  endemic species growth in humid forest almost unnoticed on the scale of global biodiversity. This experiment tries  to reflect using the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The radical scavenging capacity using 2,2- diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) and the reducing power test were determined to evaluate the antioxidant activity and  of the Human Red Blood Cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization method was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity. The results concluded that the extract is a potential source of antioxidants.

Keywords: Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, Lysimachia cousiniana, Methanol Extract.

S Raja Sundaram, K Ramesh Kumar, S Sudharsan, S Naveen Kumar

The prime objective of the present study was to formulate and evaluate buccal patches containing combination of  Esomeprazole Magnesium Trihydrate and Metoclopramide Hydrochloride. The buccal films were fabricated by solvent casting method using mucoadhesive polymers such as  Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC),  Hydroxy Propyl Cellulose (HPC), Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA), Poly Vinyl  Pyrolidone (PVP) and ethyl cellulose as a backing layer. The prepared patches were evaluated for various physicochemical properties such as weight, thickness, surface Ph, folding endurance, bioadhesive strength, water uptake, moisture loss, drug content, elongation at break, in-vitro release studies and release kinetics studies. The IR spectra showed no interaction between drugs and polymer. The physicochemical characteristics of all the samples were found to be satisfactory. The water uptake of the films increase with increase in the content of HPMC,HPC and PVA. The percentage elongation, bioadhesive force and folding endurance of the film increased with increase in the concentration of HPMC. The in-vitro drug release demonstrated slower release of both drugs in formulations with higher proportion of HPMC and HPC. The in-vitro drug release data of the optimized formulation best fitted zero order model. Buccal delivery of  this combination can resolve the draw backs of first pass metabolism in the stomach and thereby possibly improve the bioavailability.

Keywords: Buccal Delivery, Combination of Polymer, Esomeprazole Magnesium Trihydrate, Metoclopramide Hydrochloride, Solvent Casting, Poly Vinyl Pyrolidone (PVP), In-vitro Drug Release. 

Pushpraj Singh, Nitin Kumar Gupta, Desh Deepak

Oligosaccharides have been found effective in gastrointestinal normal flora proliferation and pathogen suppression, dental caries prevention, enhancement of immunity, facilitation of mineral absorption, source of antioxidant, antibiotic alternative, regulators of blood glucose in diabetics and serum lipids in hyperlipidemics. The enormous biological activities of oligosaccharides such as immunostimulant, anti-tumour, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-complementary, anti-viral, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, hypoglycemic activity, lipid lowering and regulation of mineral absorption are well reported. In our endeavor to find biologically active novel oligosaccharides, donkey milk was taken, which is a rich source of oligosaccharides and its milk is used as anti-hypertensive, anti-oxidative and heart strengthening agent in folk medicine. For this purpose donkey milk was processed by modified method of Kobata and Ginsburg followed by Gel filtration HPLC and Column Chromatography (CC) which resulted in the isolation of one novel milk oligosaccharide namely Quinose. The structure of purified milk oligosaccharide was determined with the help of chemical degradation, chemical transformation, spectroscopic techniques like 1D-NMR (1H and 13C), 2D-NMR (COSY, TOCSY, HSQC and HMBC), Structure Reporter Group (SRG) theory and Mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The geometry optimization of compound was done by using B3LYP method at 6-31G (d, p) basis set employing Density Functional Theory (DFT).  The structure is elucidated in Fig. 4.

Keywords: Donkey Milk, Oligosaccharides, Quinose.


S Naveenkumar, K Rameshkumar, S Rajasundaram, S Sudharsan

Fast dissolving tablets emerge as one of the popular and widely accepted dosage forms, especially for pediatric patients because of incomplete development of the muscular and nervous system and a case of geriatric patients suffering from Parkinson’s disorder or hand tremors. Few solid dosage forms like capsules and tablets are present days facing the problems like difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia), resulting in many incidences of non-compliance and making the therapy ineffective. Oral dosage form and oral route are the most preferred route of administration for various drugs have limitations like first-pass metabolism, psychiatric patients, bed ridden and uncooperative patients. Glimepiride is a second generation sulfonylurea of oral hypoglycaemic drug that stimulates the ß-cells of the pancreases to secrete insulin. The mouth dissolving tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. The drug- excipient compatibility studies were performed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Physicochemical characteristics and In-vitro drug dissolution tests were performed. The In-vitro drug release pattern and the dissolution data was treated with mathematical modeling accelerated stability studies were also carried out to the optimized formulation (F-6). The FTIR studies revealed that drugs were compatible with the Superdisintegrants used. The optimized formulations were found to have good physicochemical and In-vitro release properties. The In-vitro dissolution data was perfectly fitting to zero order and the release of drug from the formulation followed Higuchi’s release. The accelerated stability studies revealed that the tablets retain their characteristics even after stressed storage conditions. ‎

Keywords: Glimepiride, Fast Dissolving Tablets, Superdisintegrants, Direct Compression.

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