Volume 13

January-March 2021

Review Articles

Sreelakshmi M S, Fels Saju

Topical drug delivery systems are localized drug delivery systems for the treatment of cutaneous disorders in which the drug is delivered via skin. These systems are generally used for treating local skin infection. Many semisolid preparations including ointments, creams and lotions are available for treating skin ailments. Gels also belong to this category. But some of its properties make it more suitable dosage form than the others in this group. Gels are solid, jelly like materials formed from colloidal mixtures. The major property of a pharmaceutical gel is that it has a solid like consistency upon storage but is breakable through sheer force generated via shaking the bottle or squeezing the tube. Another property which makes it popular is that gels are less greasy and can be easily removed from the skin. Moreover, the gels have a better application property and stability in comparison to other topical formulations like creams and ointments which make it more acceptable in the pharmaceutical industry. In this review, a general overview of the gels are described including its chemistry, classes, formulation considerations, method of preparation and evaluation methods.

Keywords: Gel, Gel Delivery System, Topical Drug Delivery System, Inorganic Gel, Organic Gel.

M Abd Elgadir

The date fruits are rich sources of protein, vitamins, alkaloids, carbohydrates, carotenoids, fatty acid (stearic acid, lauric, linoleic, and palmitic), dietary fibers, tannins, polyphenolic compounds, and flavonoids. The fruits also contain different types of nutrients such as calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium. The date fruits are also utilized in different pharmaceutical and medicinal aspects. From the pharmaceutical overview, the date fruits contain many pharmaceutical compounds such as anthocyanins, sterols, procyanidins and flavonoids, and phenolic carotenoids. These compounds possess multiple beneficial pharmaceutical effects. Preclinical investigations have shown that the date fruits have antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial, anti-mutagenic, and antiinflammatory, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer, and immunostimulant activities. There is a lack of literature about the pharmaceutical benefits of date fruit particularly in the Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia where the mass of different varieties of date fruits are produced and available in the markets. Therefore, this article highlights selected pharmaceutical properties of the fruits.

Keywords: Date Fruit, Pharmaceutical Values, Antioxidant Activity, Anticancer Function.

Chinmaya Keshari Sahoo, Amiyakanta Mishra, Deepak Sarangi

It is required to appropriately translate the drug dosage from one animal species to another when a new drug is developed. The animal dose should not be extrapolated to a human equivalent dose (HED) by a simple conversion based on body weight as was reported. For the more appropriate conversion of drug doses from animal studies to human studies body surface area (BSA) normalization method is more accurate. BSA correlates well across several mammalian species with several parameters of biology including oxygen utilization, caloric expenditure, basal metabolism, blood volume, circulating plasma proteins, and renal function.

Keywords: Body Weight, HED, BSA, Parameters.

Hariom Singh, Ranjana Choudhari

The various novel drug delivery approaches for the therapeutic molecule are widely seeking attention in the field of biomedical science. However, the accuracy and efficacy of the drug is a major issue of concern. However, the herbal drug therapy has been in use from thousands of the years or from the ancient time to treat the patients. Hence the use of pure active chemical of the herbal isolate can be an alternative approach which may resolve the issue. We utilized multiple databases, PubMed (Medline), EMBASE and Google Scholar for literature search. The scientists and researchers are trying to apply the current advanced drug delivery concept on the herbal medicines to reduce the unwanted pharmacological and physiochemical side effects of the therapeutic molecules. There are various novel drug delivery systems which are being used for the delivery of the herbal bioactive molecules, such as the polymeric micelle, injectable hydrogel, Nano gel, microsphere, polymeric nanoparticles, Nanoemulsions, liposomes, Nanocapsules, phytosomes, dendrimer, transferosomes, and ethosomes. These formulations have a great number of advantages like the enhancement of drug solubility, bioavailability, dose reduction, drug distribution, drug stability, sustained delivery, protection from the drug degradation and minimization of the adverse effects and toxicity. The present review highlights the existing research and development for the herbal bioactive molecules and summarizes their preparation methodologies, characterization techniques, route of administration, and type of active ingredients, size distribution, pharmacological activity and applications of novel herbal formulations.

Keywords: Herbal Bioactive Molecules, Drug Delivery, Bioavailability, Formulations, Vesicular Drug Delivery System.

Research Articles

A Geethalakshmi, Ashwini B, Roshan M Jain

The bioavailability of conventional nasal solutions is very poor due to mucocilliary clearance, enzyme activity present in nasal mucosal membrane and drainage which remove rapidly various foreign substances including drug from the surface of the nasal. Frequent instillation of drug solution is necessary to maintain a therapeutic drug level in the nasal or at the site of action but the frequent use of highly concentrated solution may induce toxic side effects due to highly vascularized systemic absorption of drug. The recent trends in nasal drug delivery are in situ gelling systems. Ampicillin sodium is a β-lactum antibiotic belonging to amino penicillin family. In this investigation pH triggered nasal in situ gelling system was formulated by using carbopol 934 and HPMC K4M , it was evaluated for several parameters like drug-polymer interaction, appearance, clarity, pH measurement, drug content (%), gelling capacity, gelation time,  viscosity, in vitro drug release studies, comparative diffusion studies and short term stability studies. In the developed selected formulation which exhibits 7th h 65.2% release with non-irritating, sterile and stable properties thus increasing residence time of drug with better patient compliance. Comparative diffusion studies showed to sustain release of drug for 7h than marketed nasal drops for 2h, so it was concluded that Ampicillin sodium in situ gel is a viable alternative to conventional system.

Keywords: Ampicillin Sodium, β-lactum Antibiotic, In Situ Gel, Carbopol 934, HPMC K4M pH Triggered Method.


Nivya P, Daisy Chella Kumari S, Devi Damayanthi R, Ramya Selvam T, Parveen S, Bhuvaneswari K


Captopril loaded maltodextrin based proniosome were prepared by slurry method with different surfactant to carrier ratio. The proniosome formulation was evaluated for FT-IR study and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The niosomal dispersion as further evaluated for entrapment efficiency, invitro release study, kinetic data analysis, stability study. The result from SEM analysis has smooth surface of proniosome. The formulation F6 which showed higher entrapment efficiency of 97.26% and invitro cumulative drug release of 102.26% at the end of 12 hrs. was found to be best among the all 9 formulations. Release was best explained by the First order kinetics. Kinetic analysis showed that the drug release follows Fickian release. Proniosome formulation has showed appropriate stability for 45 days by storing the formulations at different conditions. Captopril provides effective treatment for hypertension and congestive heart failure. However clinical use requires the daily dose of 37.5-75mg to be taken at three times a day. Development of a prolonged action dosage form for captopril will bring many benefits. The development of oral controlled or sustained captopril formulations has been a challenge for a long period of time.

Keywords: Captopril, Proniosomes, Maltodextrin.

Rima Allouni, Hassina Guergour, Nadia Mahdeb, Abdelouahab Bouzidi

This study was aimed at investigating the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Ruta montana L (Rutaceae) aerial parts. Antioxidant properties were assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and reducing power assay. Antibacterial activity of the extract was assessed by agar diffusion method and four strains bacteria were used for this purpose. Qualitative phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, coumarins, sterols and triterpens with absence of anthocyans and saponins. This richness confirmed by extraction yield 6.46%, 5.52% and 0.27% for methanol leaf, methanol seed and alkaloid extracts respectively. This extracts have shown an effective free radical scavenging activity with low IC50= 38.2 µg/ml was observed for methanol leaf extract and IC50=43 and 95.61 µg/ml for methanol seed extract and alkaloid extract respectively but less than the standard. These extracts have shown also a high power to reduce iron.  The extracts are tested to them antibacterial activity on four bacterial strains, where the most important inhibition was recorded with the alkaloid extract of R. montana L. on B. cereus and S. aurus.

Keywords: Ruta montana L, Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant Activity, Antibacterial Activity, Alkaloids.

M Abd Elgadir

The objective of this research paper was to evaluate wound healing films prepared from a composition of gelatin- Carica papaya extract using methods for wound healing purposes. Five films (F1-F5) were prepared from Carica papaya extract (100–500 mg) and gelatin (1000 mg). The casting technique was used to formulate the films. The films were evaluated for pH value, thickness, water absorption capacity, folding endurance, tensile strength and extract release properties. Increasing the extract of Carica papaya in the formulated film caused significant increases (p ≤ 0.05) in most evaluated parameters (Film thickness, water absorption capacity, folding endurance, tensile strength and extract release). However, increasing the extract of Carica papaya caused significant decreases (p ≤ 0.05) in the pH values of the films. Therefore, these results revealed that Carica papaya /Gelatin films could be a promising pharmaceutical candidate for wound healing treatment.

Keywords: Carica Papaya, Wound Healing, Ethanolic Extract, Extract Release.

Instructions to Authors
Subscription and Advertisement Forms