Volume 15

January-March 2023

Review Articles

Swarupa Narayan Shirke, Jameel Ahmed S Mulla

Intranasal administration has demonstrated the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and deliver medications to the central nervous system (CNS) more quickly and extensively than other common routes. Although the mechanism of drug transport from the nose to the brain is not entirely known, it is thought that numerous neural pathways including the olfactory and trigeminal, are involved. Comprehensive research is being done on intranasal nanoemulsion (NE) for brain targeting. Formulations from the area of nanomedicine include nanoemulsions. They are made up of emulsions, which are typically oil in water (sizes between 100 and 300 nm or less), stabilised by one or more surfactants, and subsequently co-surfactants, and delivered as small droplets with a large surface area. To slow down rapid nasal clearance, a mucoadhesive polymer, like chitosan, might be added to the formulation. Nasal nanoemulsions have the potential to be a reliable, non-invasive, and safe drug delivery method for the treatment of CNS diseases as they can target specific areas of the brain. The present developments of intranasal nanoemulsion are the main subject of this review, with a focus on the current difficulties that could serve to guide the direction of future research.

Keywords: Nanoemulsion, Blood Brain Barrier, Central Nervous System, Chitosan, Mucoadhesive.

Research Articles

Amel Benbott, Saida Karouche, Yasmina Moumen, Sabeh Boukeria, Camillia Mosbeh, Takwa Boumaraf, Djihane Ayadi

Peganum harmala L. belongs to the family Zygophyllaceae, and it is one of the most widely used plants in Algerian folk medicine in the treatment of jaundice and relieving joint pain and rheumatism. The aim of this study is to contribute to the evaluation of some biological activities of alkaloids extract of P. harmala roots, which are grown in Sidi El-Raghis region – Oum El Bouaghi country. Using the classical method of extraction of β-carboline alkaloids, the yield of alkaloids in the roots was estimated at 2.34%. Harmine  and  harmaline  were  the  components  identified  in  total alkaloids  roots extract  by  using  high  performance  liquid  chromatography  method. The analysis of antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)  methods showed that the crude alkaloids extract of P. harmala had a significant activity in capturing free radicals (IC50= 46.89±0.31 μg/mL), (EC50=0.12±0.05 μg/mL), respectively. The results of the anti-inflammatory activity showed for the alkaloid compounds, there were significant differences compared to the control compound represented by diclofenac, the best value was recorded with the harmine compound (EC50= 22.71± 0.52μg/mL). We conclude from this research, that harmala alkaloids have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, this study is a good indication in the future development of plant-based drugs against anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity.

Keywords: Anti-inflammatory Activity, Antioxidant Activity, Crude Alkaloids, Harmaline, Harmine, Peganum harmala.

Meziti Asma, Bouguerra Asma, Guergour Hassina, Athamena Souad, Bouzid Wafa

In recent decades, there has been a growing interest in the study of medicinal plants and their traditional use for the treatment of various diseases. The olive tree, or Olea europaea L., is an inseparable entity of the Mediterranean peoples. This plant belongs to the large family of Oleaceae. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of olive roots and bark, respectively (RAE, RME, BAE, and BME). The determination of total polyphenols by the Folin-Ciocalteu method revealed the richness of RME and BME extracts in phenolic compounds; the contents are respectively, 509.33 μgGAE/mg and 387.33 g GAE/mg of extract. The radical scavenging activity towards DPPH showed that BME and RME extracts are the most active, with an IC50 of 0.404 mg/mL and 0.525 mg/mL, respectively. In the ß-carotene bleaching assay, the extracts RAE, BME, and BAE exhibited the highest inhibitory activities, with 90.19%, 86.15%, and 78.05%, respectively. The antioxidant activity of RME extract is confirmed on oxidative homolysis of red blood induced by H2O2 with a percentage of inhibition (21%). These findings provide evidence that Olea europea bark and roots are potential sources of antioxidant which have many benefits towards human health.

Keywords: PolyphenolsOlea europea, Scavenging, Hemolysis, β caroten.

Asma Bouguerra, Asma Meziti, Hassina Guergour, Daoud Harzallah

Probiotics, prebiotics, and symbiotics have been studied extensively in recent years as potential mediators of the maintenance of healthy intestinal flora. The current study investigates the prebiotic effect of gum Arabic on some probiotic bacteria. For this purpose, the growth of three strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides strain lmn4 (MS11), and Leuconostoc mesenteroides strain 1-15 (MR4)) in the basal fermentation medium (MRS broth without glucose) at different concentrations (0.5% and 1%) of gum Arabic and glucose (control) was evaluated by optical density measurement. The findings indicate that Lactobacillus rhamnosus ferments gum Arabic better than Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains in both 0.5% and 1% concentrations. Moreover, increasing the concentration of gum Arabic had no significant effect on the growth of most of the tested strains. The effect of adding different concentrations of gum Arabic (0.5% and 1%) on the development of probiotic strains in the milk was monitored by pH measurement. The results showed that increasing the concentration of gum Arabic reduces the pH of the prebiotic milk compared to skimmed milk but not significantly. It can be concluded that gum Arabic has been found to promote the growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, a probiotic used in infants.

Keywords: Gum Arabic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Prebiotic, Probiotic.


L Satyanarayana, K Sushmitha, E Apoorva, P Akhila, G Maniteja

Herbal medicines is still the mainstay of about 75-80% of the world’s population, mainly in developing countries, for primary health care because of better compatibility with human body, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects. Plants for thousands of years have been used to enhance health and for medicinal purposes. Psidium guajava and Punica granatum, are one which has an enormous wealth of medicinal value. It for long has been known for its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antimutagenic properties. Despite of its widespread biologic uses there is a dearth of information on its therapeutic effect in the treatment of periodontal diseases. The objectives of present investigation were to formulate and evaluate herbal gel for periodontic treatment. Six formulations were made, two are of aqueous extract, two are of methanolic extract, two are of finely dried leaf, Carbopol 934 is used as a gel base. Formulations were evaluated for various parameters like physical appearance, pH, homogeneity, spreadability, viscosity, extrudability. The formulated gels were transparent, homogeneous and pH ranges from 7 to 7.5. Formulation showed acceptable rheological behaviour with applicable spreadability and extrudability properties. Present herbal formulation was developed with very safe with good stability and effective over to synthetic formulations for the treatment of periodontics. This research work gives the information reported in this contributes scientifically to recognizing the importance of the pomegranate and guava as a target in the search for new biotechnological investments and herbal formulation.

Keywords: Periodontics, Herbal Formulation, Carbopol 934, Pomegranate, Guava, Herbal Gel.

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