Volume 10

January-March 2018

Review Articles

Kulkarni K V, ‎Ghurghure S M

This review provides brief information concerning with the dendrimer, its properties, its synthesis, characterization and application in drug delivery. Dendrimer consist of well defined size, shape, molecular weight and monodispersity. These properties formulate the dendrimers a suitable carrier in drug delivery application. The unique architectural design of dendrimers, high degree of branching, multivalency, globular architecture and well defined molecular weight, clearly distinguishes these structures as unique and optimum nanocarriers in medical applications such as drug delivery, gene transfection, tumor therapy, diagnostics, etc. Synthetic approaches lead to a dendritic architecture with properties amenable to modifications of shape, size, polarity, surface properties and internal structure. Nanoparticle drug-delivery systems are the popular ones as are able to increase the selectivity and stability of therapeutic agents. As a result of their unique behaviour dendrimers are suitable for a wide range of biomedical and industrial applications.

Keywords: Dendrimers, Properties, Synthesis, Types, Characterization, Applications, Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) Dendrimer.

Research Articles

Aremu Olusola ‎Isaac, Asiru Idayat ‎Dayo, Femi-Oyewo ‎Nbang Nyong ‎ ‎

The plant Venonia amygdalina (Asteraceae) has been ethnomedicinally reported to have  antifungal activities. There is the need to have convenient dosage formulations that would be therapeutically useful to patients. The present study seeks to screen for the presence of secondary metabolites present in the plant and then evaluate the extract and ointment formulations against certain selected fungal organisms. The extract was obtained from pulverized dried leaves with ethanol 98%v/v at powdered leaves to solvent ratio 1:10.The plant extract was screened phytochemically using standard procedures. The extract was formulated into ointment at concentrations 0%w/w, 2.5%w/w, 5.0%w/w, 7.5%w/w and 10.0%w/w respectively. The ointment formulations were evaluated against Tricophyton tonsurans and Tricophyton rubrum as test organisms using Whitfield ointment as reference standard. The extraction gave a yield of 6.60%w/w. The phytochemical screening indicated presence ofsaponin, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides. The extract showed activity against Tryhophyton tonsurans with mean inhibition zones of 7.00± 0.01mm to 16.00±0.02mm and Tricophyton rubrum with mean inhibition zones of 2.00±0.01mm to 14.00±0.02mm for all the concentrations tested with the exception of 0%w/w, the negative control. Ointment formulations gave inhibition zone of 6.00±0.01mm to 12.00±0.02mm against Tricophyton tonsurans at all concentrations while it had inhibition zone of 4.00±0.01mm against Tricophyton rubrum at 7.5%w/w and 10.0%w/w concentrations respectively. This compares fairly well with Whitfield ointment with inhibition zone of 24.00 ±0.03mm and 37.50±0.03mm against Tricophyton tonsurans and Tricophyton rubrum respectively. The results of this work show that Vernonia amygdalina leaf extract ointment has potential in treating certain fungal infection of the skin.

Keywords: Vernonia amygdalina Leaf Extract, Ointment, Inhibition, Tricophyton tonsurans, Tricophyton rubrum.

Indrajeet S Patil , ‎Omkar A Patil, ‎Vishal V Bilaskar

The main objective of this study was to formulate and evaluate the orodispersible tablets of Clopidogrel bisulfate with natural, synthetic Superdisintegrants. Clopidogrel bisulfate an antiplatelet drug used is an inhibitor of platelet activation and decreases subsequent platelet aggregation. Clopidogrel bisulfate has its oral bioavailability (50) and biological half life (5-10 hrs). In the present study an attempt was made to formulate oral disintegrating tablets of Clopidogrel bisulfate with a view to achieve a better disintegration and dissolution rate and further improving the bioavailability of the drug. Orodispersible tablets were prepared using various concentrations (10%, 15%) of super disintegrants like Moringa oleifera, Plantago Ovata, and co-processed excipients like 1:1 ratios of Moringa oleifera along with by direct compression method. The preformulation studies by FTIR confirmed no interactions between drug and polymers. The prepared formulations were evaluated for the precompression parameters and the values were within prescribed limits and indicated good free flowing properties. The tablets prepared by direct compression method were evaluated for physical parameters, wetting time, disintegration time, content uniformity and in-vitro dissolution. Amongst all the prepared formulations, F4 and F7 which comprised of Moringa oleifera and Plantago Ovata 1:1 ratio at 10% concentration prepared by direct compression method was found to the best formulation as it exhibited satisfactory physical parameters.

Keywords: Orodispersible Tablet, Clopidogrel Bisulphate, Superdisintegrants, Direct Compression, Moringa oleifera, Plantago Ovata.

Jyothika Mattam, ‎Krishna Sailaja A

The objective of the investigation was to prepare sulfasalazine microcapsules and microspheres and comparative study was done among the best formulations of microcapsules and microspheres. The sulfasalazine microcapsules were prepared by solvent evaporation method and microspheres by emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Ethyl cellulose was used as a polymer for the preparation of microcapsules and microspheres. Different parameters were optimized for the preparation of microcapsules and microspheres such as drug: polymer concentration, various organic solvent, organic: aqueous phase ratios, RPM. The prepared formulations were subjected to drug content analysis, entrapment efficiency, and size analysis and in vitro drug release studies. The microcapsules showed drug content of 91.2%, entrapment efficiency of 87.5%, and in vitro dug release of 89.26% for 12hrs. Whereas microspheres have shown drug content of 94.2%, entrapment efficiency of 84.6% and in vitro drug release of 90.7% for 12hrs. Drug: polymer concentration showed significant increase on entrapment efficiency. On comparison of the best formulations of sulfasalazine microcapsules and microspheres the microcapsules were found to be the best formulation with the highest entrapment efficiency (87.5%), drug content (91.2%), and in vitro drug release (89.26%) up to 12 hrs.

Keywords: Sulfasalazine, Crohn’s Disease, Solvent Evaporation Technique, Ethyl Cellulose.

Ravindra R Patil, ‎Yuvraj S Pawara, ‎Nayana Mahajan, ‎Hitendra S Mahajan

The study was aimed extraction of banana powder from banana pulp; The presence of carbohydrate was confirmed by phytochemical analysis. The drugs and extract were found to be compatible as confirmed by IR spectral studies. The banana powder was evaluated for its micromeritic properties viz. suspending properties, Sedimentation volume, redispersibility, pH measurement, viscosity measurement and particle size. The formulations were prepared using Musa Paradisiacal pulp powder and other excipient. Suspension prepared by using Musa Paradisiacal pulp powder were found to be easily redispersible than other suspensions. Studies indicate that the pulp of Musa paradisiacal may be used as a pharmaceutical adjuvant and as a suspending agent at 2-4%w/v, concentration. This study confirmed that the banana pulp can be used as an effective release retardant and can be successfully used in commercial products. Ofloxacin suspension was prepared by using musa paradisiacal pulp powder as suspending agent and the suspension was evaluated for its various parameters and dissolution studies.

Keywords: Novel Excipient, Antimicrobial Drug, Suspending Agents, Suspension.

Hitendra S Mahajan‎‎, Ghanashyam A ‎Girnar‎

Many drug molecules are poorly water soluble so that unable to produce their desired effect. To solve this problem different approaches are used like physical modification which includes particle size reduction, solid dispersion, micro emulsion, complexation and chemical modifications. Among all techniques solid dispersion (SD) is promising technique to increase drug solubility, still very few SD are available in market because of stability issue of SD. So to overcome this issue new technique is applied known as Surface Solid Dispersion (SSD). SSD is a technique that provides deposition of the drug on the surface of certain materials (carriers) that can alter dissolution characteristics of drug. In SSD dissolution enhancement occurs because it reduces drug agglomeration and increases drug surface area. Drug release depends on nature of carrier so carrier should be porous, hydrophilic with fine particle size. Drug of choice in this study is Gliclazide (GLZ), BCS class II drug. SSD is prepared by probe sonicator to reduce particle size and solubility enhancement. The vibrations from sonicator are transferred into solution via tip of probe which induces cavities in solution. The solution in cavities becomes supercritical fluid because of large temperature and pressure difference between bulk solution and cavity solution. As per previous study compound shows high solubility in supercritical solvent, also cavitation cause micro streaming which leads turbulence of solid-liquid film which accelerates mass transfer process which leads solubility enhancements of drug. When formed cavities collapsed it releases tremendous energy which leads particle size reduction.

Keywords: Surface Solid Dispersion (SSD), Probe Sonicator, Solubility Enhancement.

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